toll-like receptor


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

Toll-like receptor

(tōl′līk′)
n.
Any of a class of proteins that are located within membranes, often on the cell surface, and are an important part of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors recognize and bind to pathogens or to fragments resulting from cell damage and then activate biochemical pathways that generate an immune response.

toll-like receptor

Abbreviation: TLR
Any of several receptors on macrophages and other immune and endothelial cells that reacts with pathogen components such as bacterial peptidoglycan or lipopolysaccharide. Activation of a receptor stimulates release of cytokines and other chemical signals that are part of innate immunity.
See also: receptor
References in periodicals archive ?
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are proteins that are fundamental in the induction of the immune system and inflammatory reaction.
B and T lymphocyte attenuator inhibits LPS-induced endotoxic shock by suppressing Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in innate immune cells.
Barrett et al., "Control of toll-like receptor 7 expression is essential to restrict autoimmunity and dendritic cell proliferation," Immunity, vol.
Medzhitov, "Toll-like receptor signaling pathways," Science, vol.
Seki, "Toll-like receptor 2 and palmitic acid cooperatively contribute to the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis through inflammasome activation in mice," Hepatology, vol.
Gene expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) (a) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) (b) measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in COPD (smokers (n = 73), nonsmokers (n = 28)) and control group (smokers (n = 33) and nonsmokers (n = 68)).
Discovery and development of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonists: A new paradigm for treating sepsis and other diseases.
Impaired Toll-like receptor 2-mediated Thl and Thl7/22 cytokines secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with atopic dermatitis.
Masini-Repiso, "Functional toll-like receptor 4 conferring lipopolysaccharide responsiveness is expressed in thyroid cells," Endocrinology, vol.
Wu et al., "Toll-like receptor 4 promotes tubular inflammation in diabetic nephropathy," Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol.
Forrest et al., "Alternate transcription of the Toll-like receptor signaling cascade," Genome Biology, vol.