toll-like receptor


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Toll-like receptor

(tōl′līk′)
n.
Any of a class of proteins that are located within membranes, often on the cell surface, and are an important part of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors recognize and bind to pathogens or to fragments resulting from cell damage and then activate biochemical pathways that generate an immune response.

toll-like receptor

Abbreviation: TLR
Any of several receptors on macrophages and other immune and endothelial cells that reacts with pathogen components such as bacterial peptidoglycan or lipopolysaccharide. Activation of a receptor stimulates release of cytokines and other chemical signals that are part of innate immunity.
See also: receptor
References in periodicals archive ?
Toll-like receptor 4 coupled Gi protein signaling pathways regulate extracellular signalregulated kinase phosphorylation and AP-1 activation independent of NF-[kappa]B activation.
Simultaneous detection of co-segregating missense mutations of the Toll-like receptor 4.
Differential expression of Toll-like receptor pathway genes in chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps.
Endotoxin-tolerant mice have mutations in Toll-like receptor 4 (TIr4).
Blood samples from 810 study volunteers taken between 1990 and 2000 showed that 55 of the people carry the variant of the gene for toll-like receptor 4.
The new study found that treatments that manipulate both the GABA receptor and toll-like receptor 4 have the potential to reduce anxiety and control cravings, with little to no risk for addiction, according to lead investigator Harry June, professor of psychiatry and pharmacology and experimental therapeutics at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
The toll-like receptors are a family of immune-cell surface proteins that detect and respond to microbes (SN: 9/8/01, p.
QbG10 is a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist with clinical proof-of-concept in allergic asthma and rhinitis.
The study not only solves the long-standing mystery of how nickel causes an allergic reaction, but also "opens up another avenue of thought" about how Toll-like receptors work, says Anthony Gaspari, a dermatologist at the University of Maryland in Baltimore.
These so-called toll-like receptors, or TLRs, are the key sensors guiding the body's initial reaction to bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
Studies conducted over mice have shown that T gondii directly activates a specific immune protein in the host, called toll-like receptor 11 (TLR-11), which helps control the animals' immune response to the parasite.
com/research/3763cb/competitor_analysi) has announced the addition of the "Competitor Analysis: Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) Agonists & Antagonists" report to their offering.