4 coupled Gi protein signaling pathways regulate extracellular signalregulated kinase phosphorylation and AP-1 activation independent of NF-[kappa]B activation.
Simultaneous detection of co-segregating missense mutations of the Toll-like receptor
Differential expression of Toll-like receptor
pathway genes in chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps.
Endotoxin-tolerant mice have mutations in Toll-like receptor
Blood samples from 810 study volunteers taken between 1990 and 2000 showed that 55 of the people carry the variant of the gene for toll-like receptor
The new study found that treatments that manipulate both the GABA receptor and toll-like receptor
4 have the potential to reduce anxiety and control cravings, with little to no risk for addiction, according to lead investigator Harry June, professor of psychiatry and pharmacology and experimental therapeutics at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
The toll-like receptors
are a family of immune-cell surface proteins that detect and respond to microbes (SN: 9/8/01, p.
QbG10 is a Toll-like receptor
9 agonist with clinical proof-of-concept in allergic asthma and rhinitis.
The study not only solves the long-standing mystery of how nickel causes an allergic reaction, but also "opens up another avenue of thought" about how Toll-like receptors
work, says Anthony Gaspari, a dermatologist at the University of Maryland in Baltimore.
These so-called toll-like receptors
, or TLRs, are the key sensors guiding the body's initial reaction to bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
Studies conducted over mice have shown that T gondii directly activates a specific immune protein in the host, called toll-like receptor
11 (TLR-11), which helps control the animals' immune response to the parasite.