toll-like receptor


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Toll-like receptor

(tōl′līk′)
n.
Any of a class of proteins that are located within membranes, often on the cell surface, and are an important part of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors recognize and bind to pathogens or to fragments resulting from cell damage and then activate biochemical pathways that generate an immune response.

toll-like receptor

Abbreviation: TLR
Any of several receptors on macrophages and other immune and endothelial cells that reacts with pathogen components such as bacterial peptidoglycan or lipopolysaccharide. Activation of a receptor stimulates release of cytokines and other chemical signals that are part of innate immunity.
See also: receptor
References in periodicals archive ?
Simultaneous detection of co-segregating missense mutations of the Toll-like receptor 4.
Cutting edge: recognition of gram-positive bacterial cell wall components by the innate immune system occurs via toll-like receptor 2.
Blood samples from 810 study volunteers taken between 1990 and 2000 showed that 55 of the people carry the variant of the gene for toll-like receptor 4.
The new study found that treatments that manipulate both the GABA receptor and toll-like receptor 4 have the potential to reduce anxiety and control cravings, with little to no risk for addiction, according to lead investigator Harry June, professor of psychiatry and pharmacology and experimental therapeutics at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
The toll-like receptors are a family of immune-cell surface proteins that detect and respond to microbes (SN: 9/8/01, p.
The study not only solves the long-standing mystery of how nickel causes an allergic reaction, but also "opens up another avenue of thought" about how Toll-like receptors work, says Anthony Gaspari, a dermatologist at the University of Maryland in Baltimore.
These so-called toll-like receptors, or TLRs, are the key sensors guiding the body's initial reaction to bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
In the new study, researchers suggest that instead of activating toll-like receptors directly, T gondii's first interaction in the human gut is with the helpful bacteria that live inside the body.
The Company's initial focus is on developing small molecule Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based product candidates.
The Competitive Intelligence Report Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) Agonists & Antagonists provides a competitor analysis in the development pipeline of novel small molecules, proteins, DNA, RNA and vaccines targeting the toll-like receptors (TLR) for treatment or prevention of cancer, infectious diseases, sepsis and allergy as of October 2011.
Toll-like Receptors are a family of receptors that control modulation of immune responses.