token economy


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economy

 [e-kon´o-me]
the management of money or domestic affairs.
token economy a program of treatment in behavior therapy, usually conducted in a hospital setting, in which the patient may earn tokens by engaging in appropriate personal and social behavior, or lose tokens by inappropriate or antisocial behavior; tokens may be exchanged for tangible rewards (such as food snacks or clothing) or for special privileges (such as watching television or passes to leave the hospital).

token economy

Etymology: AS, tacen, to show; Gk, oikonomia, household management
a technique of reinforcement used in behavior therapy in the management of a group of people, such as in hospitals, institutions, or classrooms. Individuals are rewarded for specific activities or behavior with tokens that they can exchange for desired objects or privileges.

token economy

A system that uses the principles of operant conditioning to manage a “microeconomy” (halfway house, psychiatric hospital or other closed system), in which tokens—exchangeable for goods or privileges—are given to patients or detainees upon completion of specified tasks or activities.
References in periodicals archive ?
Further research might analyze the differential effect of incorporating the brief ACT protocol to the sole implementation of a token economy or exploring the efficacy of the ACT protocol alone.
These data show that diverse populations of patients can be treated within the same token economy program thereby improving cost effectiveness.
These data also allowed exploration of whether previously identified correlates of classroom performance also predicted asking questions in the presence of a token economy.
The effects of a token economy system on the inappropriate verbalizations of emotional support students.
The Level System (McNeil & Filcheck, 2001) possesses characteristics of both a token economy and response cost and provides teachers of young children with strategies in the management of behavior problems.
When we began the token economy in September, Tommy averaged $18 a day for the remainder of that month.
Relatedly, instituting token economy programs (see, for example, Esser & Botterbusch, 1975; Fernandes, Fischer, & Ryan, 1973); to selectively reinforce clients' job-appropriate activities in the workshop is also relevant in this context, although the latter may be construed as a psychosocially-targeted intervention as well.
We're looking at creating the credit infrastructure for what we believe will be the future of the token economy.
Small exceptions have arisen where the subjects of behavioral economics research have been human rather than nonhuman animals, as, for instance, in the case of the token economy in which a form of operant conditioning is used to reward desirable behaviors with tokens, which in turn can be exchanged for items or privileges (Kagel, 1972).
Conclusion: Results suggest that Token Economy and social reinforcement successfully work in managing the behavior excess and deficits of persons with schizophrenia.