token economy


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economy

 [e-kon´o-me]
the management of money or domestic affairs.
token economy a program of treatment in behavior therapy, usually conducted in a hospital setting, in which the patient may earn tokens by engaging in appropriate personal and social behavior, or lose tokens by inappropriate or antisocial behavior; tokens may be exchanged for tangible rewards (such as food snacks or clothing) or for special privileges (such as watching television or passes to leave the hospital).

token economy

Etymology: AS, tacen, to show; Gk, oikonomia, household management
a technique of reinforcement used in behavior therapy in the management of a group of people, such as in hospitals, institutions, or classrooms. Individuals are rewarded for specific activities or behavior with tokens that they can exchange for desired objects or privileges.

token economy

A system that uses the principles of operant conditioning to manage a “microeconomy” (halfway house, psychiatric hospital or other closed system), in which tokens—exchangeable for goods or privileges—are given to patients or detainees upon completion of specified tasks or activities.
References in periodicals archive ?
Multiple-baseline analysis of a token economy for psychiatric inpatients.
Achievement place: Modification of the behaviors of pre-delinquent boys within a token economy.
A search of PsychINFO presented no abstracts examining the impact of Big Five personality variables on Token Economy success.
The Token Economy systematically underestimated class participation.
If child inappropriate behavior is found to decrease with these programs, perhaps the response cost and token economy programs could be used as a short-term training tool in schools and faded out of the classroom following behavior change.
Evaluation of a whole-class token economy to manage disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom.
Where patients were given additional treatments within a token-economy trial, data were included only if this treatment was evenly distributed and it was only the token economy that was randomized.
The investigators found that all but two studies showed significant benefits of the token economy on target behaviors of self-care, social interaction, treatment participation, and other activities of daily living.
1992) used a bear puppet, "Buddy Bear," to explain the requirements of the token economy to the children.
A multiple baseline design across behaviors (Kazdin, 1982b; McLaughlin, 1983) was used to evaluate the effects of the token economy.
1990) used a token economy to effectively decrease talk outs and inappropriate facial expressions in classroom and group therapy settings.
Because of her many problems, initial attempts to change Susan's behavior using the point and level token economy already in place in this setting were not successful.