toilet training


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Related to toilet training: Potty training

toi·let train·ing

training directed at teaching a child proper control of bladder and bowel functions; psychoanalytic personality theory believes that the attitudes of both parent and child concerning this training may have important psychological implications for the child's later development.

toilet training

the process of teaching a child to control the functions of the bladder and bowel. Training programs vary, but all emphasize a positive, consistent, nonpunitive, nonpressured approach. Each program is individualized, depending on the mental and physical age and state of the child, the parent-child relationship, and readiness of the child to learn. Training often begins around 24 months of age, when voluntary control of the anal and urethral sphincters is achieved by most children. When the child has mastered some motor skills, is aware of his or her ability to control the body, and can communicate adequately, training is likely to be easy. Resistance occurs if the parents try to train the child before the child is physiologically and psychologically ready. Bowel training is usually accomplished before bladder training because the urge to evacuate the bowel is stronger than the urge to empty the bladder, and the need is less frequent and more regular. Nighttime bladder control may not be achieved until the child is 4 or 5 years of age or older. Behavior modification, using a system of rewards for each of the various phases of the training, has been successful with both normal and mentally retarded children. A major nursing function is to identify the readiness of the child to learn and to work with the parents, advising them in a nonauthoritarian way of the various techniques.

toi·let train·ing

(toylĕt trāning)
Teaching a child proper control of bladder and bowel functions; psychoanalytic personality theory believes that the attitudes of both parent and child concerning this training may have important psychological implications for the child's later development.

toilet training

Teaching a child to control urination and defecation until placed on a toilet. The bowel movements of an infant habitually occur at the same time each day very early in life, but because the child does not have adequate neuromuscular control of bowel and bladder function until the end of the second year, it is not advisable to begin this training until then. Close to that time, placing the child on a small potty chair for a short period several times a day may allow him or her to stay dry. First the diapers are removed while the child is awake, then later removed during naps, and the child is told he or she should be able to stay dry. This schedule may need to be interrupted for several days to a week if the child does not remain dry.

To protect the bed, a rubber sheet should be used during the training period. Training pants or “pull-ups” may help in the transition from passive to active control of toilet habits. There is no difference in ease and timing of training between boys and girls, each taking about 3 to 6 months.

Children who are unsuccessful in remaining dry or controlling their bowels should not be punished. To do so may promote the later development of enuresis or constipation. In any event, it is neither abnormal nor harmful for training to be delayed until well into the third year of life. If not achieved by then, professional evaluation should be undertaken to detect the rare case of genitourinary or gastrointestinal abnormalities that may be contributing to such a delay.

See also: training
References in periodicals archive ?
Waiting to begin toilet training means spending more effort and expense on diapers.
At what age do parents/caregivers commence toilet training on their children/wards?
In the case of toilet training, we would first be wondering if the parent is simply struggling, doesn't have sufficient understanding, there is a problem with their intellectual ability, lack of education or are there things happening for that parent, which are stress points that are impacting on their ability to deliver the right level of care to the children,' she says.
To be truly toilet-trained, the child has to be able to have the sensation that they need to go, be able to interpret that sensation and be able to then tell the parent and take some action," said Wolraich, who is also editor of the American Academy of Pediatrics' book on toilet training.
By seeing the parents relax about this messy play, the child begins to relax about toilet training.
For its part, P&G has targeted children ages 2 to 7 with a program to instill proper bathroom hygiene practices--the next step after toilet training is more or less mastered.
The joint nature of this effort raises a number of questions about the congruence of toilet training attitudes and practices among parents and child care professionals.
For example, we have to spend a specified minimum amount of time trying to toilet train residents--even those for whom toilet training is never going to be possible.
Before that, homosexuals were often institutionalized by their families, their Oedipal complexes scrutinized, their toilet training and dreams relentlessly analyzed in hope of a tallking "cure.
Topics covered include: night waking, bedwetting, toilet training, toddler terrorism, aggression, sibling rivalry, hyperactivity, sexual behaviour, specific learning disability, smacking, time-out, television watching, encouraging good communication, effects of parental separation, fostering development, and nurturing self-esteem.
Author Gina has over 20 years of hands-on experience as a top maternity nurse and offers down-to-earth, practical solutions to everything from avoiding nappy rash to toilet training.
Since toilet training and vocabulary development are closely associated, the relationship of all this to growing literacy problems and remedial reading budgets in the United States deserves to be further researched.