toe off


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toe off

; TO final period of foot contact during stance phase (of gait) preceded by forefoot loading and followed by swing phase; see Table 1
Table 1: Foot events occurring during normal bipedal gait
Stance phaseEvents/movements occurring
Leg 1
Heel strike (HS)Leg 1
STJ slightly supinated, so that:
• Posterior lateral area of the 'plantar heel pad' contacts the ground surface
• Forefoot is inverted relative to the ground surface
MTJ is also supinated, so that:
• Tibialis anterior tendon is contracted and prominent
• Limb decelerates
Hallux slightly dorsiflexed due to contraction of EHL
Leg 2
Knee of supporting leg is flexed
Heel off on supporting leg
From heel strike (HS) to foot flat (FF)Leg 1
STJ begins to pronate due to:
• Internal rotations within the lower limb
• Friction between the ground surface and the heel
MTJ also begins to pronate as:
• Tibialis anterior relaxes
• Ground reaction forces act on the fifth and fourth metatarsals
The plantar heel pad becomes weight-bearing
The lateral area, then the whole forefoot, loads rapidly
The hallux ceases to dorsiflex as soon as forefoot loading occurs
Once forefoot loading in leg 1 is completed (and leg 2 has undergone toe off) the STJ should pronate no further
Leg 2
Foot moving through propulsion phase, so that leg 1 loads fully as leg 2 undergoes toe off
From foot flat (FF) to midstance (MS)Leg 1
The leg and pelvis undergo external rotation
• STJ supinates
The knee is extended
• A bisecting line through the knee exits through the middle of the second metatarsal
• Leg 2 begins its swing phase
Midstance occurs when the leg is perpendicular to the ground
• The leg is directly over the foot
• STJ is neutral
• Tibialis anterior is relaxed
• Weight is evenly distributed across the heel pad
• MTJ is fully pronated
• Toes are flat to the ground surface, with no plantarflexion of the digits
• Leg 2 is in the middle of the swing phase and passes leg 1
Midstance (MS) to toe off (TO)Leg 1
As the body weight moves anteriorly over the foot, simultaneously:
• The knee flexes rapidly
• Gastrocnemius fires to bring about heel lift (just prior to heel contact of leg 2)
• Body weight transfers to the forefoot
The foot is supinating (due to the pull of gastrocnemius)
• There is no movement of the STJ, only movement at the MTJ
• MTJ locks to convert the foot to a rigid lever
Propulsion begins
• Body weight is distributed across the metatarsal heads
• First MTPJ is dorsiflexed but both first and fifth rays are parallel to the support surface
Propulsion continues
• The body weight continues to moves further forward
• First metatarsal plantarflexes and plantar aspect of first MTPJ becomes prominent
• Remainder of the foot supinates relative to the first ray and the height of the MLA increases
• Peroneus longus fires to stabilize the first ray (peroneus longus tendon becomes prominent)
• Body weight transfers from the lateral to the medial side of the foot
• Lateral aspect of the forefoot lifts (assists transference of body weight to leg 2)
• STJ supination reduces as foot begins to unload
Swing phaseEvents/movements occurring
Leg 1
Early swingPlantar aspect of first MTPJ still prominent
Toes dorsiflexed at MTPJs to allow ground clearance during swing
MidswingPlantar aspect of first MTPJ no longer prominent
Late swingSTJ and MTJ supinated due to contraction of tibialis anterior, EHL and EDL muscles

STJ, subtalar joint; MTJ, metatarsal joint; EHL, extensor hallucis longus; MTPJ, metatarsophalangeal joint; MLA, medial longitudinal arch; EDL, extensor digitorum longus.

References in periodicals archive ?
In the healthy group (Figure 1), both joints have maximum extension at heel contact, then a significant reduction in ankle dorsi-flexion at mid stance, a reduction in knee flexion at toe off along with a slight increase in angle of ankle joint and finally minimum angle in both joints (knee flexion-ankle dorsiflexion) in the mid swing relative to other stages of gait cycle.
Similarly, significantly larger changes in angular displacement at the ankle joint from last toe strike to toe off were recorded in the attacking condition, with large effect sizes (t (20) = 5.
and, "How much money would you chop your own little toe off for?
The dependent variables in this study included stride length (m), left and right step length (m), step width (m), and ankle angle, knee angle, and hip angle (degrees) at both heel strike and toe off, measured at two levels for the independent variable of testing time (pre: before riding and post: after riding) and measured at two levels (session one and session two) for the independent variable of testing session.
They amputated the rest of the toe off so now it is just a stump.
First Borna Jessica went wrong in her open at Monmore, then Ballymac Rumble, who was having his first run back from a toe off, ran brilliantly to pick up Proud Patsy there but had a look near the line and got marked.
The change in velocity during agility phases was then calculated for both running speed and lateral movement speed and was based on the difference between values at foot-strike and toe off.
The inability to toe off warrants a detailed examination and radiographs to rule out a tendon tear or possible fracture.
The bites had torn the toe off the surf bootie on his right foot, and he'd begun to bleed through his wet suit.
Pakistan looked beaten when Inzamam-ul-Haq was dismissed in freakish fashion when he played the ball into his toe off Panesar and it ballooned to Alastair Cook at silly mid-on.
Coasting at 2-0 up, and dominating with their blistering pace and slick passing, Everton took their toe off the gas.
Are you in the YES camp of souls who would sooner chew a toe off than be disconnected from the ether?