(CTG) and mode of delivery (cesarean section C/S, Vaginal delivery with and without instrumental delivery) were also recoded; CTG was categorized as reassuring and non-reassuring.
Despite reactive external fetal tocography
without uterine contractions, cesarean section was performed because the patient's pain persisted.
In the majority of cases, the UP or FHR sensors were attached to the maternal abdomen; the FHR was acquired from an ultrasound probe and the UP was acquired by tocography
(the process of recording uterine contractions during labor, using external pressure sensors attached to the maternal abdomen).
Fetal scalp pH and lactate sampling are technologies that were introduced into practice, as was fetal electric monitoring by use of cardiac tocography
(32), before a clear evidence base in terms of neonatal/child/maternal outcome was established, and benefit remains unproven.