tick paralysis

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 [pah-ral´ĭ-sis] (pl. paral´yses.)
Loss or impairment of motor function in a part due to a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism; also, by analogy, impairment of sensory function (sensory paralysis). Paralysis is a symptom of a wide variety of physical and emotional disorders rather than a disease in itself. Called also palsy.
Types of Paralysis. Paralysis results from damage to parts of the nervous system. The kind of paralysis resulting, and the degree, depend on whether the damage is to the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system.

If the central nervous system is damaged, paralysis frequently affects the movement of a limb as a whole, not the individual muscles. The more common forms of central paralysis are hemiplegia (in which one entire side of the body is affected, including the face, arm, and leg) and paraplegia (in which both legs and sometimes the trunk are affected). In central paralysis the tone of the muscles is increased, causing spasticity.

If the peripheral nervous system is damaged, individual muscles or groups of muscles in a particular part of the body, rather than a whole limb, are more likely to be affected. The muscles are flaccid, and there is often impairment of sensation.
Causes of Central Paralysis. stroke syndrome is one of the most common causes of central paralysis. Although there is usually some permanent disability, much can be done to rehabilitate the patient. Paralysis produced by damage to the spinal cord can be the result of direct injuries, tumors, and infectious diseases. Paralysis in children may be a result of failure of the brain to develop properly in intrauterine life or of injuries to the brain, as in the case of cerebral palsy. Congenital syphilis may also leave a child partially paralyzed. Paralysis resulting from hysteria has no organic basis and is a result of emotional disturbance or mental illness.
Causes of Peripheral Paralysis. Until the recent development of immunizing vaccines, the most frequent cause of peripheral paralysis in children was poliomyelitis. neuritis, inflammation of a nerve, can also produce paralysis. Causes can be physical, as with cold or injury; chemical, as in lead poisoning; or disease states, such as diabetes mellitus or infection. Paralysis caused by neuritis frequently disappears when the disorder causing it is corrected.
paralysis of accommodation paralysis of the ciliary muscles of the eye so as to prevent accommodation.
paralysis a´gitans Parkinson's disease.
ascending paralysis spinal paralysis that progresses upward.
birth paralysis that due to injury received at birth.
brachial paralysis paralysis of an upper limb from damage to the brachial plexus.
bulbar paralysis that due to changes in motor centers of the medulla oblongata; the chronic form is marked by progressive paralysis and atrophy of the lips, tongue, pharynx, and larynx, and is due to degeneration of the nerve nuclei of the floor of the fourth ventricle.
central paralysis any paralysis due to a lesion of the brain or spinal cord.
cerebral paralysis paralysis caused by an intracranial lesion; see also cerebral palsy.
compression paralysis that caused by pressure on a nerve.
conjugate paralysis loss of ability to perform some parallel ocular movements.
crossed paralysis paralysis affecting one side of the face and the other side of the body.
crutch paralysis brachial paralysis caused by pressure from a crutch.
decubitus paralysis paralysis due to pressure on a nerve from lying for a long time in one position.
divers' paralysis decompression sickness.
Erb-Duchenne paralysis paralysis of the upper roots of the brachial plexus due to destruction of the fifth and sixth cervical roots, without involvement of the small muscles of the hand. Called also Erb's palsy.
facial paralysis weakening or paralysis of the facial nerve, as in bell's palsy.
familial periodic paralysis a hereditary disease with recurring attacks of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis, associated with a fall in (hypokalemic type), a rise in (hyperkalemic type), or normal (normokalemic type) serum potassium levels; all three types are inherited as autosomal dominant traits.
flaccid paralysis paralysis with loss of muscle tone of the paralyzed part and absence of tendon reflexes.
immunologic paralysis former name for immunologic tolerance.
infantile paralysis the major form of poliomyelitis.
infantile cerebral ataxic paralysis a congenital condition due to defective development of the frontal regions of the brain, affecting all extremities.
ischemic paralysis local paralysis due to stoppage of circulation.
Klumpke's paralysis (Klumpke-Dejerine paralysis) atrophic paralysis of the lower arm and hand, due to lesion of the eighth cervical and first dorsal thoracic nerves.
Landry's paralysis Guillain-Barré syndrome.
lead paralysis severe peripheral neuritis with wristdrop, due to lead poisoning.
mixed paralysis combined motor and sensory paralysis.
motor paralysis paralysis of the voluntary muscles.
musculospiral paralysis Saturday night paralysis.
obstetric paralysis birth paralysis.
periodic paralysis
1. any of various diseases characterized by episodic flaccid paralysis or muscular weakness.
progressive bulbar paralysis the chronic form of bulbar paralysis; called also Duchenne's disease or paralysis.
pseudobulbar muscular paralysis pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy.
pseudohypertrophic muscular paralysis pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy.
radial paralysis Saturday night paralysis.
Saturday night paralysis paralysis of the extensor muscles of the wrist and fingers, so called because of its frequent occurrence in alcoholics. It is most often due to prolonged compression of the radial (musculospiral) nerve, and, depending upon the site of nerve injury, is sometimes accompanied by weakness and extension of the elbow. Called also musculospiral or radial paralysis.
sensory paralysis loss of sensation resulting from a morbid process.
sleep paralysis paralysis occurring at awakening or sleep onset; it represents extension of the atonia of REM sleep into the waking state and is often seen in those suffering from narcolepsy or sleep apnea. Called also waking paralysis.
spastic paralysis paralysis with rigidity of the muscles and heightened deep muscle reflexes and tendon reflexes.
spastic spinal paralysis lateral sclerosis.
tick paralysis progressive ascending flaccid motor paralysis following the bite of certain ticks, usually Dermacentor andersoni; first seen in children and domestic animals in the northern Pacific region of North America, and now seen in other parts of the world.
Volkmann's paralysis ischemic paralysis.
waking paralysis sleep paralysis.

tick pa·ral·y·sis

an ascending noninfectious flaccid paralysis caused by the continuing presence of gravid Dermacentor and Ixodes ticks; reported from North America and Australia; affects humans (mainly children) and other animals.

tick paralysis

a rare, progressive, reversible disorder caused by several species of ticks that release a neurotoxin that causes weakness, incoordination, and paralysis. The tick must feed on the host for several days before the symptoms appear, and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery. Because respiratory or bulbar paralysis can cause death, it is important to search for ticks, frequently hidden in scalp hair, on a patient with these symptoms. This infection is often confused with Guillain-Barré syndrome, botulism, and myasthenia gravis.

tick paralysis

Ascending tick paralysis, tick toxicosis A flaccid ascending quadriplegia that resembles Guillain-Barré syndrome–GBS, due to the continued presence of certain ticks attached to the occipital or upper neck region in humans, attributed to an unidentified neurotoxin produced by the bite of certain pregnant ticks Clinical Onset several days after the tick begins feeding–unsteady gait, extremity and truncal ataxia, loss of deep tendon reflexes, drooling, tachypnea, affected children develop an unsteady gait–ataxia followed several days later by lower extremity weakness that gradually moves up to involve the upper limbs; paralysis may affect respiration, mandating ventilatory assistance DiffDx Botulism, GBS, myasthenia gravis, postinfectious polyradiculopathy Management Tick removal, supportive care Prognosis Tick removal results in complete recuperation; 10% mortality if not removed, due to respiratory paralysis

tick pa·ral·y·sis

(tik păr-al'i-sis)
An ascending paralysis caused by the continuing presence of Dermacentor and Ixodes ticks attached in the occipital region or on the upper neck of humans, often hidden under long hair.


a blood-sucking arachnid parasite. There are two types, hard and soft. Includes American dog (dermacentorvariabilis), argasid tick, bont (amblyommahebraeum), British dog (ixodescanisuga), brown dog (rhipicephalussanguineus), brown ear (rhipicephalusappendiculatus), brown winter (dermacentornigrolineatus), castor bean (ricinus communis), cayenne (amblyommacajennense), Gulf Coast (amblyommamaculatum), ixodid, lone star (amblyommaamericanum), pajaroello (ornithodoruscoriaceus), red-legged (rhipicephalusevertsi), Rocky Mountain wood (dermacentorandersoni), shingle (syn. moose, dermacentoralbipictus), spinose ear (otobiusmegnini), tropical bont (amblyommavariegatum), yellow dog (haemaphysalisleachi leachi) tick.

canine tick typhus
see canine ehrlichiosis.
tick collar
a neck collar made of a PVC resin which releases particles of insecticide over a period of several months and aids in the control of tick infestations in companion animals.
tick fever
hard tick
ticks of the family Ixodidae and members of Ixodes, Boophilus, Margaropus, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis, Aponomma, Dermacentor, Amblyomma, Rhipicentor spp. They have a hard chitinous shield on the dorsal surface of the body, on the entire back of the male but only the anterior portion of the female.
tick paralysis
the female of several species of ticks but most commonly Ixodes or Dermacentor spp. elaborates a neurotoxin that typically causes an ascending flaccid paralysis in many animal species and humans but particularly in companion animals and young food animals. Affected dogs first develop weakness and paralysis of the hindlimbs, then forelimbs and ultimately respiratory paralysis unless the tick is removed and, in some cases, treatment with hyperimmune serum is given.
tick pyemia
an infection of lambs caused by Staphylococcus aureus and transmitted by the bites of ticks. Newborn lambs die of septicemia or develop signs of arthritis, meningitis or dermatitis. Called also staphylococcal pyemia.
seed tick
see seed tick.
soft tick
ticks of the family Argasidae including Argas, Otobius, Ornithodorus spp. These ticks have no dorsal protective shield.
said of wool or fleece that is heavily discolored by the feces of sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus).
tick toxicosis
see sweating sickness.
tick vectors
ticks act as vectors of protozoa, bacteria, viruses, rickettsia.
tick worry
an all-embracing term to describe the debilitating effects of heavy tick infestations. Includes anemia, irritation by the ticks, local infection as a result of bites, secondary blowfly and screw-worm infestation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Australian investigators have reported that the toxin inhibits acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular synapse, but tick paralysis there is caused by Ixodes species, and it's not clear that the same mechanism is at work in the paralysis caused by Dermacentor species, Dr.
Inokuma H, Takahata H, Fournier PE, et al Tick paralysis by Ixodes holocylus in a Japanese traveler returning from Australia.
Krishnan AV, Lin CS, Reddel SW, et al onduction block and impaired axonal function in tick paralysis.
4-6,8,9,12,14,22) Regional Tick North American Tick Paralysis (TP) Paralysis (TP) Geographic Southwest Canada (British Columbia, distribution Alberta) United States (US) Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountain West US Southeast Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Coasts.
Although tick paralysis is not a reportable disease in the state, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment receives, on average, a report of one case per year.
The ticks removed from all four patients were on the neck or back; in previously reported tick paralysis cases, ticks were predominantly on the head and neck (7).
The pathogenesis of tick paralysis has not been fully elucidated, and pathologic and clinical effects vary depending on the tick species (4).
If unrecognized, tick paralysis can progress to respiratory failure and may be fatal in approximately 10% of cases (6).
Most cases of tick paralysis resolve completely within 24 hours of removing the tick, as long as further complications have not developed (from a lack of oxygen or inhaling water, for example).