10-12) The proximal third of the fibula has a fibrous synarthrosis with the lateral tibiotarsus by means of the interosseous ligament and is attached at the fibular crest by a bifurcated proximal tibiofibular ligament.
This type of luxation has not been described in dogs or birds, and requires rupture of the cruciate ligaments, tibiofibular ligament, and the interosseus ligament, without damage to the lateral collateral ligament.
The ankle syndesmosis is made up of four ligaments, including the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL), the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (PITFL), the transverse tibiofibular ligament (TTFL), and the interosseous ligament (IOL), a distal extension of the interosseous membrane (Fig.
Alonso and coworkers (9) compared the squeeze test to the external rotation test and two additional tests: the palpation test, which elicits pain with palpation over the area of the anterior tibiofibular ligament, and the modified dorsiflexion-compression test, which actually results in increased ankle range of motion with compression over the malleoli during active dorsiflexion.
The inferior tibiofibular joint consists of the three main syndesmotic ligaments: the anterior tibiofibular ligament, the posterior tibiofibular ligament, and the interosseous ligament (1).
The deep constituent of the posterior ligament is the transverse tibiofibular ligament.
As discussed earlier, the PITF ligament has two components: a superficial ligament and a deep ligament, which is often referred to as the transverse tibiofibular ligament.
In a fourth patient, an osteochondral lesion of the medial talar dome is seen in conjunction with an injury of the anterior tibiofibular ligament (Figure 10).
This excessive force can sprain or even rupture the anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments.
Tears of the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament