At week 38, all mice were sacrificed and the tibialis
anterior (TA) was excised and homogenized to evaluate (a) Bax and Bcl2 protein levels through Western blot analysis; (b) Bax/Bcl2 ratio analysis (the values are expressed as fold of induction relative to the control and correspond to the mean [+ or -] SD (n = 8; * P < 0.05 versus control; # P < 0.05 versus HFD, two-way ANOVA)); (c) cleaved caspase-3 levels detected by Western blot analysis; (d) quantification of caspase-3 levels from experiments shown in (c).
Herniation of tibialis
anterior is pronounced with resisting dorsiflexion of the foot.
We found a defect of fascia with 8 cm in length [Figure 3] and the muscle hernia of left tibialis
anterior upon surgery.
The plaster was cut on the first day of the 5th week; patients then practiced contraction of the tibialis
posterior with gravity eliminated.
Open eyes Closed eyes Improved cases 26/44 (59.1%) 25/44 (56.8%) Worsened cases 18/44 (40.9%) 19/44 (43.2%) % means improved 11.51% 10.64% % means worsening 10.91% 11.61% Table II--Statistical analysis (mean [+ or -] standard deviation) of tests with open and closed eyes, with (Y) and without (N) tape, related to postural control (COP = Centre of Pressure) and myoelectrical activity of Tibialis
Anterior muscle (RMS TA) and of Peroneus Longus muscle (RMS PL).
Multiple Fibs were detected in all patients' anterior tibialis
muscle (Figure 3).
At the tibialis
anterior the PPT significantly increased from test 2 to test 3 (mean difference 23.6 kPa [95% CI 0.8 to 46.3], P = 0.042) and further from test 3 to test 4 (mean difference: 26.1 kPa [95% CI 3.2 to 49.0], P = 0.026, Figure 2).
Each group was formed by 6 tibialis
anterior muscles and in each one of these, 18 fields were counted in a 400x magnification.
The hip flexors (iliacus, psoas) and knee flexors (biceps femoris long and short head) showed the largest increase in force (272, 271, 334, and 356 N in double support, resp.), while the plantar flexors (medial gastrocnemius, tibialis
posterior, and soleus) and dorsiflexors (tibialis
anterior) showed the largest decrease in force over both the full gait cycle and double support (-1228, -1659, -265, and -1367N in double support, resp.).
Transverse serial sections of gastrocnemius and tibialis
anterior muscles were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.2 M phosphate buffer saline (PBS) for 10 min at room temperature.
Moreover, three weeks after a single intramuscular injection, functional assessment revealed a significant increase in strength of the targeted tibialis
anterior muscle (+18%, p<0.001).