For patients with severe flexion deformities or tibial torsion, the correct profile of the tibial plateau is difficult to judge.
Effects of tibial torsion on distal alignment of extramedullary instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty.
Surgical intervention is not required for mild internal tibial torsion.
Clifford R, Wheeless (2010) Internal Tibial Torsion [online] Available from: http://www.
A study (14) was conducted on 30 subjects to investigate the effect of excessive tibial torsion
on flexible flat foot.
In-toeing is a more common finding and may be due to excessive anteversion of the hip or internal tibial torsion
1,5,9) However, the asymmetries described by Grossman and colleagues (5) were most evident in MRI-measured tibial torsion, which was not measured in our study.
A more comprehensive understanding of dancers' turnout would be achieved by measuring not only standing turnout angles but also hip passive range of motion, hip external rotation strength, and tibial torsion and version.
Pre- and post-measures for two components of turnout were also recorded: Passive Hip External Rotation (P-HER) and Tibial Torsion (TT).
TPT = Total Passive Turnout (TPT), in degrees; TAT-fb = Total Active Turnout, Static Paper Measure, in degrees; TAT-discs = Total Active Turnout, Dynamic Active Rotational Disc Measure, in degrees; P-HER = Passive Hip External Rotation, in degrees; TT = Tibial Torsion, in degrees.
Assessment of tibial torsion
and rotational deformity with a new fluoroscopic technique.
1-5) Total turnout, or whole-leg turnout, is thought to be the sum of hip external rotation, tibio-femoral (knee joint) rotation, tibial torsion
(twisting of the tibial shaft along its long axis), and out-toeing concurrent with dorsiflexion.