Efficacy and safety of 120-W Thulium
: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet vapoenucleation of prostates compared with holmium laser enucleation of prostates for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Use of the 2-m continuous wave thulium
laser for the resection of oral squamous cell carcinomas does not impair pathological assessment.
The total population of thulium
ions at these three states is related with the population density ([rho]) of thulium
As can be seen a gain of 22 dB and NF of less than 6 dB was achieved with a band of 1477-1507 nm, that is in the S-band, using high Thulium
concentration of 6000 ppm, compared with 20 ppm of Erbium used in EDFA.
The laser rod, or lasing medium, currently being tested uses erbium, thulium
, and holmium added to a YAG crystal.
One was thulium
, after Thule, which in classic legend was the land farthest to the north, and which was interpreted by later Europeans as representing Scandinavia.
laser for neurosurgery, in particular must be approved for cyst fenestration, ventriculo-cysternosomy, 3 rd ventriculostomy and tumor resection.
According to Righter's proposal, elements such as tin, zinc, indium, cadmium and thulium
may be found in lower concentrations on the mantle of the Moon since they never re-condensed following the impact.
Though every scar is unique and individually evaluated for treatment, typically she uses pulsed-dye laser, intense pulsed light, or broadband light therapy to treat erythematous/early scars; nonablative fractional lasers to treat atrophic scars; and the thulium
or 1,470-nm laser to treat hyper-pigmented scars.
The review is based on a report by Transparency Market Research (TMR), titled " Rare Earth Metals Market (Type -- Lanthanum, Praseodymium, Cerium, Neodymium, Samarium, Promethium, Europium, Dysprosium, Holmium, Gadolinium, Terbium, Thulium
, Scandium, Yttrium, Erbium, Ytterbium, and Lutetium; Application -- Magnets, Catalyst, Metallurgy, Ceramics, Phosphors, Glass, and Polishing) -- Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2012 -- 2018 ."
Due to the higher concentration of [Tm.sup.3+], the emission lifetimes caused by the fluorescence of clustered thulium
centers and the tetragonal optical centers are responsible for the longer lifetime 15 ms [11,20].
Complications and early postoperative outcome in 1080 patients after thulium
vapoenucleation of the prostate: Results at a single institution.