Angular values, expressed in Euler angles, for the humeral motion relative to the thorax (thoracohumeral angles) and to the scapula (scapulohumeral angles) were determined using the ISB (Wu et al., 2005) recommended rotation sequences (y, x', y''): arm elevation, plane of arm elevation and axial rotation.
In this study the dependent variables were humeral and scapular positions of thoracohumeral, glenohumeral angles and protraction, tilt and lateral rotation.
The thoracohumeral angles (humerus angle with respect to thorax, HRt) at the extreme range-of-motion of shoulder ER were significantly smaller in the athletes group.
Concerning the extreme range-of-motion of shoulder IR, the athletes group showed a significantly greater range-of-motion thoracohumeral angle, and positioned the dominant scapula more in retraction and anterior tilt.
In our study, and concerning ER ROM, athletes showed less thoracohumeral (range-of-motion) than non-overhead athletes.
There was positive correlation seen in the athletes group between the thoracohumeral angles and scapular spinal tilt rotation at the extreme position of shoulder external rotation.
In the athletes group the thoracohumeral IR ROM was higher (~18[degrees]).