The CC length of the thyroid mass below the thoracic inlet
[greater than or equal to]66 mm or a volume of the mediastinal portion [greater than or equal to]162 c[m.sup.3] were significantly associated with an extra-cervical approach (p=0.0001) (Table 2).
Most substernal goiters can be managed through a transcervical approach, but a full sternotomy is required when a substernal goiter extending to both sides of the thorax and/or has a larger diameter than the thoracic inlet
or when airway constriction is revealed.
The definition of substernal goiter is not uniform and varies among authors, but it usually denotes a thyroid formation with cervical departure that goes beyond the superior thoracic inlet
for at least 3 cm and preserves the connections between the thoracic and cervical portions.2 Surgery for mediastinal goiters should always be considered, even in elderly patients because of the high risk of tracheal compression and the low morbidity of the surgery.
Esophageal obstructions in bovine commonly occur at pharynx, cranial aspect of cervical esophagus, thoracic inlet
or base of heart.
In birds, a thymoma can develop under the skin anywhere from the jaw to the thoracic inlet
and can be solid, cystic, or hemorrhagic.
Early division of tracheal suspensory ligament attachments with or without mobilization of the smaller lobe greatly increases the extent of superior traction on the substernal component, thereby facilitating delivery of the substernal pole through the thoracic inlet
and identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerves.
Tracheomalaciais one of the complications, which usually results from prolonged compression of trachea by expanding and longstanding goitre, particularly having an extension in the thoracic inlet
. Respiratory embarrassment due to compression of the upper airways by the growing goitre is an indication for surgery, but the residual problem of tracheomalacia which develops after thyroidectomy is a life-threatening postoperative complication1.
The upper airway includes the pharynx, the larynx, and the subglottic trachea to the level of the thoracic inlet
. In children, upper airway pathology may be readily assessed by a lateral radiographic view of the neck to assess for soft-tissue thickening.
(2b) Dilatation proximal to thoracic inlet
Those on the subcutaneous tissues were located on neck, sacrum, shoulder (3 cases), thoracic inlet
, head, left side of sternum, lumbar (2 cases), and anus (1 case); in another case the location was not informed (CANPOLAT & EROKSUZ, 2007).
Acute thoracic inlet
obstruction in achalasia of the esophagus.
An MRI neck showed an altered signal intensity SOL (38*41*47 mm), located in thoracic inlet
extending into the retromanubrium space, abutting the trachea and the brachiocephalic trunk with maintained fat planes (Fig.