thoracic

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thoracic

 [thŏ-ras´ik]
pertaining to the chest (thorax); called also pectoral.
thoracic outlet syndrome compression of the brachial plexus nerve trunks and subclavian vessels, with pain in the upper limbs, paresthesia of fingers, vasomotor symptoms, and weakness and wasting of small muscles of the hand; it may be caused by drooping shoulder girdle, a cervical rib (cervical rib syndrome) or fibrous band, an abnormal first rib, continual hyperabduction of the arm (as during sleep), or compression of the edge of the scalenus anterior muscle.
thoracic surgery surgical procedures involving entrance into the chest cavity. Until techniques for endotracheal anesthesia were perfected, this type of surgery was extremely dangerous because of the possibility of lung collapse. By administering anesthesia under pressure through an endotracheal tube it is now possible to keep one or both lungs expanded, even when they are subjected to atmospheric pressure. Thoracic surgery includes procedures involving the lungs, heart, and great vessels, as well as tracheal resection, esophagogastrectomy, and repair of hiatal hernia. In order to give intelligent care to the patient before and after surgery, one must have adequate knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the chest and thoracic cavity. It is especially important to know the difference in pressures within and outside the thoracic cavity. (See also discussion of Mechanics of Inflation and Deflation, under lung.)
Patient Care. Prior to surgery the care of the patient will depend on the specific operation to be done and the particular disorder requiring surgery. In general, the patient should be given an explanation of the operative procedure anticipated and the type of equipment that will be used in the postoperative period. The patient will be taught the proper method of coughing to remove secretions accumulated in the lungs. Although coughing may be painful in the immediate postoperative period and may require analgesic medication to relieve the discomfort, if the patient understands the need for coughing up the secretions he or she will be more cooperative. Special exercises may be given to preserve muscular action of the shoulder on the affected side and to maintain proper alignment of the upper portion of his or her body and arm. Usually the physical therapist supervises these exercises, but the nursing staff must coordinate them with other aspects of patient care.



Narcotics are rarely given before thoracic surgery because they can depress respiration. Usually the preoperative medication is atropine in combination with a barbiturate.

The development of intensive care units has sharply improved the care of the post-thoracotomy patient. The availability of monitors, ventilators, and special assist devices has increased not only the safety of the operation but also the comfort of the patient. Many patients return from the operating room with endotracheal tubes still in place, ventilated by machines, and monitored with such special equipment as Swan-Ganz catheters for observation of cardiac output, oxygenation, and level of hydration.

During the postoperative period, alteration in respiratory status is a major potential problem for patients having thoracic surgery. Impaired gas exchange can result from atelectasis, pneumothorax, mediastinal shift, bronchopulmonary fistula, pneumonia, pleural effusion, pulmonary edema, narcotics, or abdominal distention. To identify any change in respiratory status, the patient's arterial blood gases are serially monitored, breath sounds are auscultated, and the rate and character of respirations are assessed. To facilitate removal of obstructive mucus and other secretions in the air passages the patient is encouraged to deep breathe and cough every one to two hours. Chest physical therapy may be ordered to help mobilize the secretions so that they are more easily coughed up. The amount and character of sputum is noted and recorded. If necessary, nasotracheal suctioning may be done to help clear the air passages. Oxygen may be administered to prevent anoxia.

The patient is also periodically assessed for pain, abdominal distention, and alteration in cardiac function related to decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias, or cardiac tamponade. If the pericardial sac becomes filled with fluid and produces an acute cardiac tamponade, an emergency pericardiocentesis may be necessary.

Almost all patients having thoracic surgery will have chest tubes. (One exception is the patient who has had a lung removed. In this case fluid is deliberately allowed to accumulate in the pleural space to prevent mediastinal shift.) Chest tubes are attached to closed drainage systems to avoid pneumothorax and allow for drainage of the pleural space and gradual reexpansion of the lung. (See chest tube for care.)

As the operative site heals and the lung expands, the chest tubes can be safely removed. After their removal an airtight bandage is applied to the area. As a precaution against leakage of air into the chest cavity, the physician may apply petrolatum to the edges of the wound before applying the dressing.

tho·rac·ic

(thō-ras'ik),
Relating to the thorax.
Synonym(s): thoracal

thoracic

(thə-răs′ĭk)
adj.
Of, relating to, or situated in or near the thorax: the thoracic vertebrae; thoracic appendages.

tho·rac′i·cal·ly adv.

thoracic

adjective Pertaining to the chest.

thoracic

 adjective Pertaining to the chest

tho·rac·ic

(thōr-as'ik)
Relating to the thorax.

thoracic

Pertaining to the chest.

Thoracic

Refers to the chest area. The thorax runs between the abdomen and neck and is encased in the ribs.

Patient discussion about thoracic

Q. My mother had a chest pain and she was sent for a TEE. When do you need a TEE and when a normal echo is fine? My mother had a chest pain few weeks ago. we were sure its a heart attack and went to the ER. There the doctors did some tests and she was sent for a (trans thoracic echocardiogram) TEE. I want to know when do you need a TEE and when you can do just a normal echocardiogram because the TEE was very painful for her and we want to know if ther was a better way.

A. The main difference between TEE and normal echo is that in TEE u put the transducer directly in the esophagus. The transducer is the same and the idea is to put it as close as possible to the heart.
As far as I know there are some heart situations the TEE is better for diagnosis that normal echo. Maybe your mom had one of those situations?
I can recommend you to ask the ER doctor. he will probably be able to give a better explanation for his choice

More discussions about thoracic
References in periodicals archive ?
Nerve branches disperse from cervicothoracic ganglion to ventral rami of the eighth cervical (C8), the first (T1) and second (T2) thoracal spinal nerves or to brachial plexus (Dursun, 2000; Pather et al., 2006; Ozgel et al., 2009; Song et al., 2010).
Considering the females and males separately, we observed that the thoracal weight of macropterous males was significantly higher than in brachypterous ones while the weight of the body and of the abdomen did not show significant differences on average, despite the apparent differences in extreme values (see: Figs 3 and 4).
It preserves the thoracal region with extremely pachyostotic neural arches and vertebral centra, pachyostotic ribs and a probable distal fragment of a femur (see Sanz, 1983 for further details).
(16) of 38 patients referring to the Chest Diseases Department and being followed with the diagnosis of MM, thoracal involvement was established in 19 (50%), lung involvement in 13 (35%) and thoracal bone invasion in 9 (24%).
Clinical specimens included cerebrospinal liquid, endotracheal aspirate, thoracal drain and tracheostoma.
Clinical and functional characteristics of patients with SCI mean [+ or -] sd (a) Age 35.38 [+ or -] 11.2 Body mass index (kg/[m.sup.2]) 22.1 [+ or -] 3.5 Time since injury (months) 3.98 [+ or -] 1.9 Immobilization duration (months) 1.25 [+ or -] 0.47 Therapeutic standing duration 2.41 [+ or -] 0.64 (n = 24) (months) Upper body ergometry exercise 0.85 [+ or -] 0.9 (n = 30) duration (months) Wheelchair ambulation 2.60 [+ or -] 0.64 (n = 24) duration (months) Walking ambulation duration 1.65 [+ or -] 0.5 (n = 6) (months) n % Gender Male 15 50 Female 15 50 Neurological level Thoracal 18 61.5 Lumbar 12 38.5 ASIA (b) Incomplete 14 46.2 Complete 16 53.8 Spacticity + 8 23.1 - 22 76.9 (a) : standard deviation, (b) : American Spinal Injury Association Impairement classification Table 2.
ABSTRACT : To investigate goose feather follicle development and difference among the dorsal, ventral, and thoracal tracts during embryonic stage, the present study was conducted on 180 embryos at different ages obtained from the Jilin White goose, a Chinese indigenous breed.
(1.) We also assessed respiration activity (thoracal and abdominal).
In contrast to this are the findings for insects, in particular those for the thoracal hairs of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Barathra brassicae, and on the cercal filiform sensilla of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.
In the investigations performed in terms of abscess focus, echocardiography, contrast-enhanced thoracal tomography, and abdominal ultrasonography were found normal.
Also, a thoracal CT and/or CTA may be needed in the diagnostic quest for the illumination of possible intrathoracic etiological causes.