It included dozens of FGAs belonging to 6 classes: phenothiazines, thioxanthenes
, butyrophenones, dibenzazepines, dihydroindolones, and dibenzodiazepines.
A range of medications can cause NMS, including phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes
, and benzamides as well at the newer atypical antipsychotics.
Eye changes in connection with neuroleptic treatment especially concerning phenothiazines and thioxanthenes
. Acta Psychiatr Scand.
High-potency typical antipsychotic medications, such as phenothiazines, butyrophenones, and thioxanthenes
are associated with hyperprolactinemia, whereas atypical antipsychotics, such as molindone, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole are thought to have little if any effect.
(54) Antipsychotic medications seek to eliminate the symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations and delusions, and to help the individual identify the real world." Common types include phenothiazines, butyrophenones, and thioxanthenes
. In addition to the side effects experienced through other psychotropic medications, such as dry mouth, blurred vision, and rapid heartbeat, 15% to 20% of those treated with antipsychotics experience tardive dyskinesia (TD).
Table 2 Relative risk of hyperprolactinemia with common psychotropics Medication Effect on prolactin Medication serum levels Antipsychotics Phenothiazines ++ Butyrophenones ++ Thioxanthenes
++ Risperidone ++ Quetiapine + Olanzapine + Clozapine 0 Ziprasidone 0 Aripiprazole 0 SSRIs Paroxetine +/- Citalopram +/- Fluvoxamine +/- Fluoxetine CR 0: no hyperprolactinemia effect; +/-: increased but not to abnormal levels; +: increased to abnormal in small percentage of patients; ++: increased to abnormal in > 50% of patients; CR: isolated case reports of hyperprolactinemia but generally no increase to abnormal SSRIs: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Source: Adapted from reference 9 Conventional antipsychotics.