The binding of MT to metals is through the thiol group (SH) found in cysteine residues; the metal-free protein named as apo-metallothionein or thionein
has a predominantly disordered structure, which makes it highly vulnerable to proteolytic processes .
Responses of metallo thionein
and reduced glutathione in a freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus following metal exposures.
Fischer, "Inhibitory sites in enzymes: zinc removal and reactivation by thionein
," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
The results of double-label ex vivo experiments using metal and [35S]cysteine (+/- cycloheximide) were consistent with the above experiments, indicating that de novo thionein
synthesis was not required for short term incorporation of cadmium and mercury into metallothionein.
The number of binding sites were determined for both metallothionein and metal free thionein
. These measurements were essentially unchanged in animals sacrificed at 3, 6, 9, and 14 days or in Fanconi animals.
Stress response, detoxification, and cell defence proteins 15E2 2e-53 YP 026076 Cytochrome b (3)# Black lip abalone 2E5 1e-37 AAR11781 Heat shock protein 90 (2)# Scallop 2E10 1e-15 AAK56498 Putative metallo- thionein
(2)# Periwinkle 15F3 4e-09 AAM20842 SARP-19 precursor (5)# Periwinkle 1F9 3e-27 CAF99069 Ubiquinol-cytochrome C * Fish 1G9 1e-14 ZP_00316378 Fucose binding lectin * Bacteria 2H11 5e-11 EAA03739 UQCRH protein * Mosquito 15B9 1e-25 AAP31550 HSB 1-like protein Fruit fly AVIII.
(apo metallothionein) can modulate DNA binding and transcription activation by zinc finger containing factor SpI.
Synthesis of rat hepatic zinc thionein
in response to the stress of sham operation.