In particular, adjustment for use of thiazolidinediones
was made given their known association with UBC.(22) To decrease the risk of bias, all cumulative drug exposures before and after NMIBC diagnosis were modelled as time-dependent covariates and as continuous variables.(23)
TZDs are designed as lipophilic acids, of which the thiazolidinedione
ring behaves as the acidic head and interacts by forming hydrogen bonds with the hydrophilic binding site [P.sub.1] present in arm I.
Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione
medicine, which has gained increasing interest due to its anti-inflammatory [9, 18] and antioxidant properties  in neurodegenerative disorders, such as PD [20-22].
* Add a second oral agent (such as a sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione
, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor), a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, or basal insulin if metformin at a maximum tolerated dose does not achieve the HbA1c target over 3 months.
TEHRAN (FNA)- Patients diagnosed with diabetes and initially prescribed metformin to lower their glucose levels were less likely to require treatment intensification with a second oral medicine or insulin than patients treated first with sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones
or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, according to a study.
The effect of pioglitazone, ciglitazone and englitazone (members of insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione
derivatives) on 3T3 cells (Szalkowski et al.
A retrospective study of nearly 15,000 adults aged 55 years and older who started on single-agent drug therapy for type 2 diabetes between 1999 and 2001 showed that 5 years after starting therapy, patients who started on metformin had a 23% lower 5-year risk for dementia, compared with patients who started on a thiazolidinedione
(TZD) such as rosiglitazone (Avandia), reported Rachel Whitmer, Ph.D., an investigator in the research division of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland.
Researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania found that patients taking thiazolidinedione
(TZDs) drugs - which account for up to 20 percent of the drugs prescribed to diabetics in the United States-are two to three times more likely to develop bladder cancer than those who took a sulfonylurea drug, another common class of medications for diabetes.
Two commonly used thiazolidinedione
(TZD) drugs--rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos)--are under intense scrutiny.
A fracture risk was also seen among men who had been treated with thiazolidinedione
(TZD) drugs--either rosiglitazone (Avandia, already linked with an increased risk of heart attack) or pioglitazone (Actos)--plus a loop diuretic.
Rosiglitazone and piolglitazone are both in the thiazolidinedione
INVESTIGATORS, looking into earlier findings that suggested a connection between antioxidants, thiazolidinedione
(TZD) medications, and improvements in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), conducted a multicenter double-blind trial enrolling 247 nondiabetic patients.