thiazide diuretics


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thiazide diuretics

a group of diuretics in the thiazide family; they decrease reabsorption of sodium by the kidney and thereby increase loss of water and sodium. They also increase urinary secretion of chloride, potassium, and, to some extent, bicarbonate ions. These are the most frequently prescribed diuretics because they are moderately potent and have relatively few side effects. Most act within 1 hour after being taken and are excreted in 3 to 6 hours. Patients who are taking a thiazide diuretic should be monitored for electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, and, in the case of diabetic patients, hyperglycemia, which may necessitate an increase in insulin dosage. Because GI irritation can occur, it is advisable to take these diuretics at mealtime. See also diuretic.

diuretics

powerful drugs, often termed 'water tablets', that control hypertension and peripheral oedema; action of some local anaesthetics is antagonized by concomitant use of some diuretics (see Table 1), e.g. aldosterone antagonists (e.g. spironolactone); carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, e.g. acetazolamide; loop diuretics, e.g. furosemide; osmotic diuretics, e.g. mannitol; potassium-sparing diuretics, e.g. amiloride, or in combination with other diuretics; thiazide diuretics, e.g. bendroflumethiazide
Table 1: Principal drug interactions of local anaesthetic agents and other medications
Local anaesthetic agent Proprietary name Principal drug interactionsEffect of interaction
Lidocaine
Xylocaine
Antiarrhythmic agents
Antibacterial agents
Antipsychotics
Antivirals
Beta-blockers
Diuretics
Dolasetron
Ulcer-healing drugs
Increased myocardial depression
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias if lidocaine is given with quinpristin/dalfopristin
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias if lidocaine is given with any drug that prolongs the QT interval of the cardiac cycle
Plasma concentration of lidocaine increased by amprenavir, atazanavir and lopinavir
Increased myocardial depression
Increased risk of lidocaine toxicity when given with propranolol
The action of lidocaine is antagonized by the hypokalaemia caused by acetazolamide, loop diuretics or thiazide and related diuretics (i.e. a greater dose of lidocaine would be required to achieve anaesthesia)
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia if lidocaine is given with dolasetron
Plasma concentration of lidocaine increased when given with cimetidine; risk of lidocaine toxicity increased with cimetidine
Bupivacaine
Marcain
Levo-bupivacaine
Chirocaine
Beta-blockersIncreased risk of bupivacaine toxicity when given with propranolol
Increased risk of myocardial depression if given with other antiarrhythmic agents
Prilocaine
Citanest
Antiarrhythmic agents
Antibacterial agents
Increased risk of myocardial depression if given with antiarrhythmic agents
Increased risk of methaemoglobinaemia if given with sulphonamide antibacterial agents
Ropivacaine
Naropin
AntidepressantsMetabolism of ropivacaine is inhibited by fluvoxamine, thereby enhancing the risk of ropivacaine toxicity
Mepivacaine
Scandonest
Drug not listed in the British National Formulary
References in periodicals archive ?
An observational study showed that patients using thiazide diuretics for more than one year had a decreased risk of developing hip fractures compared with those who did not use these drugs ( HR , 0.
Consider a patient taking a thiazide diuretic, would pay Rs.
Prolonged therapy with thiazide diuretics could cause glucose intolerance.
5 1 Dlltiazem XR 120-180 1 Nitrendipine 10 1-2 Thiazide diuretics Chlorthalidone 12.
Thiazide diuretics primarily inhibit sodium transport in the kidney, leading to urinary loss of sodium and water, which decreases blood pressure.
Consider a thiazide diuretic if patients are intolerable to any of the above (3).
Thiazide diuretics are recommended after the combination of CCBs and ARBs has failed, or in some instances as first-line therapy when CCBs are contraindicated.
The incentive was not contingent upon whether a thiazide diuretic was prescribed.
Because the transport of sodium and potassium are linked in the renal tubules, thiazide diuretics can cause loss of potassium in the urine and consequently hypokalemia.
You're right about thiazide diuretics being the first choice if you need to take a drug to bring high blood pressure under control.
Consistent with these preclinical results, a high level of response was observed with lesinurad in the subset of patients receiving thiazide diuretics in study 203.
Researchers found that men who regularly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen), cholesterol-lowering statins and thiazide diuretics had lower serum PSA levels compared to men who didn't take the medications.