thiazide diuretics


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

thiazide diuretics

a group of diuretics in the thiazide family; they decrease reabsorption of sodium by the kidney and thereby increase loss of water and sodium. They also increase urinary secretion of chloride, potassium, and, to some extent, bicarbonate ions. These are the most frequently prescribed diuretics because they are moderately potent and have relatively few side effects. Most act within 1 hour after being taken and are excreted in 3 to 6 hours. Patients who are taking a thiazide diuretic should be monitored for electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, and, in the case of diabetic patients, hyperglycemia, which may necessitate an increase in insulin dosage. Because GI irritation can occur, it is advisable to take these diuretics at mealtime. See also diuretic.

diuretics

powerful drugs, often termed 'water tablets', that control hypertension and peripheral oedema; action of some local anaesthetics is antagonized by concomitant use of some diuretics (see Table 1), e.g. aldosterone antagonists (e.g. spironolactone); carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, e.g. acetazolamide; loop diuretics, e.g. furosemide; osmotic diuretics, e.g. mannitol; potassium-sparing diuretics, e.g. amiloride, or in combination with other diuretics; thiazide diuretics, e.g. bendroflumethiazide
Table 1: Principal drug interactions of local anaesthetic agents and other medications
Local anaesthetic agent Proprietary name Principal drug interactionsEffect of interaction
Lidocaine
Xylocaine
Antiarrhythmic agents
Antibacterial agents
Antipsychotics
Antivirals
Beta-blockers
Diuretics
Dolasetron
Ulcer-healing drugs
Increased myocardial depression
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias if lidocaine is given with quinpristin/dalfopristin
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias if lidocaine is given with any drug that prolongs the QT interval of the cardiac cycle
Plasma concentration of lidocaine increased by amprenavir, atazanavir and lopinavir
Increased myocardial depression
Increased risk of lidocaine toxicity when given with propranolol
The action of lidocaine is antagonized by the hypokalaemia caused by acetazolamide, loop diuretics or thiazide and related diuretics (i.e. a greater dose of lidocaine would be required to achieve anaesthesia)
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia if lidocaine is given with dolasetron
Plasma concentration of lidocaine increased when given with cimetidine; risk of lidocaine toxicity increased with cimetidine
Bupivacaine
Marcain
Levo-bupivacaine
Chirocaine
Beta-blockersIncreased risk of bupivacaine toxicity when given with propranolol
Increased risk of myocardial depression if given with other antiarrhythmic agents
Prilocaine
Citanest
Antiarrhythmic agents
Antibacterial agents
Increased risk of myocardial depression if given with antiarrhythmic agents
Increased risk of methaemoglobinaemia if given with sulphonamide antibacterial agents
Ropivacaine
Naropin
AntidepressantsMetabolism of ropivacaine is inhibited by fluvoxamine, thereby enhancing the risk of ropivacaine toxicity
Mepivacaine
Scandonest
Drug not listed in the British National Formulary
References in periodicals archive ?
There is inadvertent toxicity from interactions with ACE inhibitors, and loop and thiazide diuretics.
More than two-thirds of older adults have high blood pressure in the United States and thiazide diuretics are often recommended as the initial medication for these hypertensive patients.
Thiazide diuretic use may also predispose to the development of this condition by enhancing renal tubule calcium absorption and by promoting volume depletion and alkalosis.
The incentive was not contingent upon whether a thiazide diuretic was prescribed.
Because the transport of sodium and potassium are linked in the renal tubules, thiazide diuretics can cause loss of potassium in the urine and consequently hypokalemia.
You're right about thiazide diuretics being the first choice if you need to take a drug to bring high blood pressure under control.
Thiazide diuretics can increase blood levels of calcium by decreasing excretion and, indirectly, by affecting vitamin D metabolism, therefore calcium and vitamin D supplements should be used with caution.
Thiazide diuretics like hydrochlorothiazide (12) deplete the body of CoQ10, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc.
Certain medications, such as aspirin and thiazide diuretics, and some medical conditions, including high blood pressure and hypothyroidism, are also associated with increased blood levels of uric acid.
Urinary potassium wasting can be caused by loop or thiazide diuretics.
Drugs implicated in these type of reactions include the penicillins, cephalosporins, levodopa, methyldopa, mefenamic acid, salicylic acid, sulfonamides, thiazide diuretics, chlorpromazine, and isoniazid.
The researchers, who looked at Part D plans in California, studied eight treatment classes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, [beta]-blockers, calcium channel blockers, loop diuretics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, statins, and thiazide diuretics.