They have been also used as low-toxicity contrast agents for medical tomography  and as nanoheaters for localized thermoradiotherapy .
Zhao et al., "Ultrasmall semimetal nanoparticles of bismuth for dual-modal computed tomography/photoacoustic imaging and synergistic thermoradiotherapy," ACS Nano, vol.
The treatment of high-grade soft tissue sarcomas with preoperative thermoradiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics 1999; 45(4):941-949.
Medical radiology, principles and practice of thermoradiotherapy and thermochemotherapy.
Streffer, "Molecular and cellular mechanisms of hyperthermia," in Thermoradiotherapy
and Thermochemotherapy, M.
In one study, with a mean followup interval of 22.2 months using plaque thermoradiotherapy, the minimum tumor radiation apex dose was reduced to 50 Gy, with a 97.7% local control rate .
Finger, "Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma," The British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.
Whole body hyperthermia, a procedure in which the body temperature is elevated by MW exposure to 41-43[degrees]C, has been investigated as a treatment for cancer, most commonly as an adjunct to radiotherapy (thermoradiotherapy
) or chemotherapy (thermochemotherapy) [22-24].
in the treatment of locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.