Both periods of the day were outside of the thermoneutral zone
for layers, which is 15-28 AdegC (Ferreira 2005), indicating that the birds inside the shed were possibly out of the thermal comfort zone.
By seeking shelter in burrows of desert tortoises, horned larks exploit a microclimate within its thermoneutral zone during June-September, and they reduce evaporative water loss to 0.325 g [H.sub.2]O [h.sup.-1], or 1.25% of their body mass/h (Trost, 1972).
Temperatures in burrows, while inside the thermoneutral zone of horned larks, were close to the 35[degrees]C upper limits of the thermoneutral zone during July and August (Figs.
"But it depends on whether you're wearing clothes - the thermoneutral zone
temperature when naked is about 28C - and also on what you are doing and what you are used to."
Feed intake in TN zone was 3.02, 9.79, 9.74 and 12.14 % higher than feed intake recorded on the corresponding days in HAT while weight gain in thermoneutral zone was 9.28, 15.25, 17.48, and 15.62 % higher than weight gain recorded on the corresponding days in HAT.
Broiler strains, High ambient temperature, Thermoneutral zone, Growth performance.
The core body temperature (rectal temperature) of all the experimental animals was assessed before and after the heat stress to find out the core body temperature at thermoneutral zone
([T.sub.Re TN]) and the post exposure core body temperature ([T.sub.Re HE]) respectively.
(28) Thus, when body temperature rises above the preset limits (upper threshold) of the thermoneutral zone, peripheral vasodilation is triggered.
The first hypothesis is supported by the observation that during the menopausal transition, the thermoneutral zone is narrowed (FIGURE 4).
Excessive sweating that accompanies hot flashes is associated with labile skin conductance and a reduced sweating and shivering threshold, resulting in a narrowed thermoneutral zone
Whenever the ambient temperature exceeds the upper critical limit of the thermoneutral zone, heat dissipation by nonevaporative means becomes inefficient, causing the thermal balance to be maintained by evaporative means, which do not depend on the temperature gradient between animal and environment.
The values of air temperature (Table 1)--average temperature (28.2[degrees]C) and mean high temperature (31.9[degrees]C)--were above the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone for lactating cows, which according to Yousef (1985) are between 5 and 25[degrees]C.