When the initial treatment does not improve the targets for therapeutic destination, advanced critical hemodynamic monitoring, such as transpulmonary thermodilution
or pulmonary artery catheterization, is required and should be performed.
The left jugular vein was cannulated for fluid and drug administration and the left femoral artery for the measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO) by transpulmonary thermodilution
(PICCO Catheters; PULSION Medical Systems, Feldkirchen, Germany).
A significant correlation was observed between bioimpedance and the thermodilution
Validation of hemodialysis recirculation and access blood flow measured by thermodilution
. Nephrol Dial Transplant.
(2007) Bladder (n=92): Bard temperature-sensing urinary catheter, Bard Medical, Covington, GA Pulmonary artery (n=41): Baxter PA catheter, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Irvine, CA Myny, De Waele, Pulmonary artery: Defloor, Blot, & Thermodilution
Colardyn (2005) Catheter, Baxter HealthCare Corporation, Irvine, CA Nimah, Bshesh, Bladder: RSP Foley Callahan, & Jacobs catheter and 400 (2006) Series Thermistor, Respiratory Support Products, Inc.
The PiCC[O.sub.2] monitor was calibrated by transpulmonary thermodilution
according to the manufacturer's recommendations.
It provides cardiac output measurement based on pulse contour analysis and intermittently through transpulmonary thermodilution
A 5F catheter (PV2015L20, Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany) was inserted into the right femoral artery for thermodilution
measurements and pulse contour analysis and connected to the Infinity[R] PiCCO SmartPod[TM] XL monitor (Infinity Delta XL, Drager).
However, owing to the invasiveness of the Fick technique and the dye injection method, they have been replaced by other more modern and simplified techniques including thermodilution
techniques, lithiumdilution, bioreactance, and Doppler technique or echocardiography [52, 53].
Cardiac output (CO) was measured in triplicate by the thermodilution
However, it is not just the risk of arrhythmias which, indeed, is increased, that should be held in mind, but also that thermodilution
measurements can be altered.