The HPT testing was performed using a device with advanced thermal stimulation (ATS) Thermode
of 30 x 30 mm (Pathway Pain and Sensory Evaluation System, Medoc Ltd, Ramat Yishai, Israel) at 2 points: 1) paravertebral musculature of the lumbar segment (2 cm lateral from spinous process L1) and 2) on the proximal volar side of the opposite forearm (C8 dermatome) .
Thermal pain threshold and tolerance were measured by applying a 3 [cm.sup.2] Peltier thermode
(TSAII, Medoc, Advanced Medical Systems, Ramat Yishai, Israel) on the left forearm of participants .
(CHEPS-2001, Medoc Ltd.; 27 mm diameter) was used to evoke pain.
Hot plate analgesia apparatus (Techno) is a thermostatically controlled electrically heated plate heated by a thermode
or a boiling liquid surrounded by a transparent square box (22x22x15 cm) with flexible lid on its top.
A 4 [cm.sup.2] thermode
was directly applied to each marked anatomical location and the initial temperature of the thermode
was set at 32[degrees] C.
The QTT test is performed using the pathway 9.0 [cm.sup.2] thermode
(MEDOC Ltd., Israel) [17,18].
Wimmer and Bfichel recruited 31 brave souls who agreed to feel painful heat delivered by a thermode
on their left forearms.
This study used thermode
size 5 [cm.sup.2] put over the area of latent MTrPs at upper trapezius muscle.
Heat and cold stimuli were delivered through a 30 x 30 [mm.sup.2] thermode
attached to the skin of the dorsal surface of the left foot with a constant pressure.
Thermal perception and thermal pain are measured using a thermode
, or using other devices that operate on the thermoelectric effect [29, 45, 46].
This test consists of introducing a mouse into an open-ended cylindrical space with a floor consisting of a metallic plate that is heated by a thermode
or a boiling liquid .
Quantitative thermal sensory testing (QST) was evaluated at the described sites using a TSA-II NeuroSensory Analyzer (Medoc, Israel) with a 3.2 x 3.2 cm Peltier device thermode
that either warms or cools the skin surface.