therapeutic index


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

index

 (pl. indexes, in´dices) (L.)
1. the numerical ratio of measurement of any part in comparison with a fixed standard.
Barthel index an objective, standardized tool for measuring functional status. The individual is scored in a number of areas depending upon independence of performance. Total scores range from 0 (complete dependence) to 100 (complete independence).
bleeding index any of various methods of assessing bleeding in the gingival sulcus before or after treatment.
body mass index (BMI) the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters, a measure of body fat that gives an indication of nutritional status.
cardiac index cardiac output corrected for body size.
cephalic index 100 times the maximum breadth of the skull divided by its maximum length.
citation index an index listing all publications appearing in a set of source publications (e.g., articles in a defined group of journals) that cite a given publication in their bibliographies.
Colour index a publication of the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists containing an extensive list of dyes and dye intermediates. Each chemically distinct compound is identified by a specific number, the C.I. number, avoiding the confusion of trivial names used for dyes in the dye industry.
erythrocyte indices the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These are all useful for evaluating anemias because they provide information on the size of the erythrocytes and the concentration of hemoglobin. Called also red cell or red blood cell indices.
glycemic index a ranking of foods based on the response of postprandial blood sugar levels as compared with a reference food, usually either white bread or glucose. See table.
left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) an index of the amount of work performed by the heart.
leukopenic index a fall of 1000 or more in the total leukocyte count within 1.5 hours after ingestion of a given food; it indicates allergic hypersensitivity to that food.
index Medicus a monthly publication of the national library of medicine in which the world's leading biomedical literature is indexed by author and subject.
opsonic index a measure of opsonic activity determined by the ratio of the number of microorganisms phagocytized by normal leukocytes in the presence of serum from an individual infected by the microorganism, to the number phagocytized in serum from a normal individual.
phagocytic index any arbitrary measure of the ability of neutrophils to ingest native or opsonized particles determined by various assays; it reflects either the average number of particles ingested or the rate at which particles are cleared from the blood or culture medium.
red blood cell indices (red cell indices) erythrocyte indices.
refractive index the refractive power of a medium compared with that of air (assumed to be 1).
short increment sensitivity index (SISI) a hearing test in which randomly spaced, 0.5-second tone bursts are superimposed at 1- to 5-decibel increments in intensity on a carrier tone having the same frequency and an intensity of 20 decibels above the speech recognition threshold.
therapeutic index originally, the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the minimum curative dose; now defined as the ratio of the median lethal dose (LD50) to the median effective dose (ED50). It is used in assessing the safety of a drug.

ther·a·peu·tic in·dex

the ratio of LD50 to ED50, used in quantitative comparison of drugs.

therapeutic index

n.
The ratio between the toxic dose and the therapeutic dose of a drug, used as a measure of the relative safety of the drug for a particular treatment.

therapeutic index (TI)

the difference between the minimum therapeutic and minimum toxic concentrations of a drug.

therapeutic index

Pharmacology The ratio of a drug's toxic level to its therapeutic level, which is calculated as the toxic concentration–TC of a drug, divided by the effective concentration, expressed as TC50/EC50, a point at which 50% of Pts have a toxic reaction to the drug being monitored; the lower the therapeutic index, the more difficult it is to titrate a drug's dose in a Pt and the more critical it is that the drug be monitored. See Apparent volume of distribution, First-order kinetics, Peak levels, Trough levels, Volume of distribution, Zero-order kinetics.

ther·a·peu·tic in·dex

(thār'ă-pyū'tik in'deks)
The ratio of LD50 to ED50, used in quantitative comparisons of drugs.
Synonym(s): therapeutic ratio.

therapeutic index

Of a drug or other treatment modality, the size of the difference between the minimum effective dose and the minimum toxic concentration.

therapeutic index

; TI ratio expressing the therapeutic usefulness of a drug; i.e. maximum non-toxic dose/minimum effective dose

ther·a·peu·tic in·dex

(thār'ă-pyū'tik in'deks)
Ratio of LD50 to ED50, used in quantitative comparison of drugs.

index

pl. indexes, indices [L.] the numerical ratio of measurement of any part in comparison with a fixed standard.

index case
the first case of a disease in a group to be brought to the attention of the clinician.
Color index
a publication of the Society of Dyers and Colorists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, containing an extensive list of dyes and dye intermediates. Each chemically distinct compound is identified by a specific number, the CI number, avoiding the confusion of trivial names used for dyes in the dye industry. The Royal Horticultural Society, London, produces a similar document to aid in the identification of flower colors.
erythrocyte i's
see erythrocyte indices.
index Medicus
a monthly publication of the National Library of Medicine, in which the world's leading biomedical literature is indexed by author and subject.
opsonic index
a measure of opsonic activity determined by the ratio of the number of microorganisms phagocytized by normal leukocytes in the presence of serum from an animal infected by the microorganism, to the number phagocytized in serum from a normal animal.
phagocytic index
the average number of bacteria ingested per leukocyte of the patient's blood.
production index
a method of expressing production compared with a potential or target.
refractive index
the refractive power of a medium compared with that of air (assumed to be 1).
therapeutic index
originally, the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the minimum curative dose; now defined as the ratio of the median lethal dose (LD50) to the median effective dose (ED50). It is used in assessing the safety of a drug.
index Veterinarius
a periodic listing of all publications in the veterinary literature by the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, United Kingdom. Also available on on-line data search.
vital index
the ratio of births to deaths within a given time in a population.
References in periodicals archive ?
Various statements in this release concerning Alnylam's future expectations, plans and prospects, including without limitation, statements regarding the potential of novel lipids, including MC3, to demonstrate significant improvements in potency and broadened therapeutic index for RNAi therapeutics, Alnylam's views with respect to the potential for RNAi therapeutics utilizing such novel lipids, including ALN-TTR02 and ALN-PCS, and Alnylam's expectations regarding its "Alnylam 5x15" product strategy, constitute forward-looking statements for the purposes of the safe harbor provisions under The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.
A huge advantage here is that all payload can 'selectively hit the mark' by minimizing targeting to non-specific tissues and cells, be well tolerated, and provide a high therapeutic index.
Narrow Therapeutic Index drugs are drugs that must be closely monitored by a physician because too much or too little medicine could produce serious adverse health conditions; this is true regardless of whether the product is brand or generic.
Using data from the National Disease and Therapeutic Index, the researchers found that the number of asthma visits remained relatively stable from 1990 to 2002, compared with continuous increases in the previous 12 years.
Special care should be taken with "high-risk" drugs, such as those that have a low therapeutic index or cause undesirable side effects, those in which pharmacokinetic drug interactions may be significant, and those that are prescribed off label.
Probodies, by their ability to site-direct the activity of antibodies, should result in an improved therapeutic index for validated targets as well as enabling the drugging of targets with broad tissue expression.
Physicians overwhelmingly say they support the use of generics except where there is a narrow therapeutic index.
According to Pfizer, "while the mechanism of this interaction is unknown, due to the narrow therapeutic index of pimozide and due to the interaction noted at a low dose of pimozide, concomitant administration of Zoloft and pimozide should be contraindicated.
These drugs have a better therapeutic index than etidronate, he said.
Progress on Lipid Nanoparticle (LNP) Research Includes Discovery of Third Generation LNPs with Markedly Improved Therapeutic Index and Achievement of New Potency Benchmark with Novel "Lipidoid" Formulation -
25 November 2011 - Canadian biotech PharmaGap Inc (CVE:GAP) said today that liposomal formulations of its cancer therapy had met and exceeded expectations for three key elements of clinical trials -- potency, pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic index.
Another high-profile debate pitting the generics industry against branded pharmaceutical makers is ongoing -- the debate over Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI) drugs.

Full browser ?