therapeutic index


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index

 (pl. indexes, in´dices) (L.)
1. the numerical ratio of measurement of any part in comparison with a fixed standard.
Barthel index an objective, standardized tool for measuring functional status. The individual is scored in a number of areas depending upon independence of performance. Total scores range from 0 (complete dependence) to 100 (complete independence).
bleeding index any of various methods of assessing bleeding in the gingival sulcus before or after treatment.
body mass index (BMI) the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters, a measure of body fat that gives an indication of nutritional status.
cardiac index cardiac output corrected for body size.
cephalic index 100 times the maximum breadth of the skull divided by its maximum length.
citation index an index listing all publications appearing in a set of source publications (e.g., articles in a defined group of journals) that cite a given publication in their bibliographies.
Colour index a publication of the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists containing an extensive list of dyes and dye intermediates. Each chemically distinct compound is identified by a specific number, the C.I. number, avoiding the confusion of trivial names used for dyes in the dye industry.
erythrocyte indices the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These are all useful for evaluating anemias because they provide information on the size of the erythrocytes and the concentration of hemoglobin. Called also red cell or red blood cell indices.
glycemic index a ranking of foods based on the response of postprandial blood sugar levels as compared with a reference food, usually either white bread or glucose. See table.
left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) an index of the amount of work performed by the heart.
leukopenic index a fall of 1000 or more in the total leukocyte count within 1.5 hours after ingestion of a given food; it indicates allergic hypersensitivity to that food.
index Medicus a monthly publication of the national library of medicine in which the world's leading biomedical literature is indexed by author and subject.
opsonic index a measure of opsonic activity determined by the ratio of the number of microorganisms phagocytized by normal leukocytes in the presence of serum from an individual infected by the microorganism, to the number phagocytized in serum from a normal individual.
phagocytic index any arbitrary measure of the ability of neutrophils to ingest native or opsonized particles determined by various assays; it reflects either the average number of particles ingested or the rate at which particles are cleared from the blood or culture medium.
red blood cell indices (red cell indices) erythrocyte indices.
refractive index the refractive power of a medium compared with that of air (assumed to be 1).
short increment sensitivity index (SISI) a hearing test in which randomly spaced, 0.5-second tone bursts are superimposed at 1- to 5-decibel increments in intensity on a carrier tone having the same frequency and an intensity of 20 decibels above the speech recognition threshold.
therapeutic index originally, the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the minimum curative dose; now defined as the ratio of the median lethal dose (LD50) to the median effective dose (ED50). It is used in assessing the safety of a drug.

ther·a·peu·tic in·dex

the ratio of LD50 to ED50, used in quantitative comparison of drugs.

therapeutic index

n.
The ratio between the toxic dose and the therapeutic dose of a drug, used as a measure of the relative safety of the drug for a particular treatment.

therapeutic index

Pharmacology The ratio of a drug's toxic level to its therapeutic level, which is calculated as the toxic concentration–TC of a drug, divided by the effective concentration, expressed as TC50/EC50, a point at which 50% of Pts have a toxic reaction to the drug being monitored; the lower the therapeutic index, the more difficult it is to titrate a drug's dose in a Pt and the more critical it is that the drug be monitored. See Apparent volume of distribution, First-order kinetics, Peak levels, Trough levels, Volume of distribution, Zero-order kinetics.

ther·a·peu·tic in·dex

(thār'ă-pyū'tik in'deks)
The ratio of LD50 to ED50, used in quantitative comparisons of drugs.
Synonym(s): therapeutic ratio.

therapeutic index

Of a drug or other treatment modality, the size of the difference between the minimum effective dose and the minimum toxic concentration.

ther·a·peu·tic in·dex

(thār'ă-pyū'tik in'deks)
Ratio of LD50 to ED50, used in quantitative comparison of drugs.
References in periodicals archive ?
Dose-response curves, safe intravenous (IV) dose, therapeutic index (TI), therapeutic ratio (TR) and safety factor (SF):
Therapeutic index: the ratio between the toxic dose and therapeutic dose of a drug; used as a measure of the relative safety of the drug for a particular treatment (the higher the ratio, the greater the safety of the therapeutic dose)
A therapeutic index and an English--Latin plant name index assist the user of the compendium to find the information they need quickly and easily.
Genetic variations in drug metabolizing enzymes can lead to the excessive build-up of a drug with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., thiopurine methyl-transferase and 6-mercaptopurine), or the lack of a therapeutic effect where metabolic activation is required (e.g., cytochrome P450 2D6 and codeine), Likewise, studies have shown that variations in target receptors can lead to a lack of beneficial effects of a drug, for example by increased desensitization (e.g., beta-2 adrenoreceptor and albuterol).
And unit dosing in theory is very attractive but mostly for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index." Amoxicillin has a wide therapeutic range; dosing can vary from 20 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg.
On a monthly basis, medication use and cost was measured and reported the number of medications and medication doses per nursing home resident per month; the number of laboratory measurements for narrow therapeutic index drugs per nursing home resident per month; and the cost of all oral medications per nursing home resident per month.
* Pharmacological data: reproductive toxicity, experimental animal studies, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic index and presence of toxic constituents;
Due to animal welfare considerations and a low therapeutic index, neuromuscular blocking agents should not be used in moose.
* Special Considerations: Like Claritin, Clarinex appears to be a benign medication with a high therapeutic index, said Dr.
Warfarin is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, meaning a specific blood level of the medication must be achieved for it to be effective yet not toxic to the patient.
Finally, development of newer drugs offering similar activity against both enzyme targets (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase-IV), as well as an improved therapeutic index, will definitely strengthen clinical practice.
The most common indication is a low margin of safety or therapeutic index. Another indication is pharmacokinetic variability.

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