therapeutic cloning


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therapeutic cloning

n.
The production of embryonic stem cells for use in replacing or repairing damaged tissues or organs, achieved by transferring a diploid nucleus from a body cell into an egg whose nucleus has been removed and by harvesting cells from the resulting blastocyst.
Cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic—i.e., non-germinal/reproductive—cell is transferred into an egg from which the nucleus has been previously removed, in order generate an embryonic stem-cell line, which has the advantage of pluripotency—i.e., the ability to differentiate along multiple pathways except the reproductive pathway

therapeutic cloning

Molecular medicine The cloning of human cell lines to replace nonfunctional tissue. See Cloning.

therapeutic cloning

medical and scientific applications of cloning (see CLONE that do not result in the production of genetically-identical foetuses, but rather involve the use of STEM CELLS grown IN VITRO to provide specific cell lines. Essentially a form of TISSUE CULTURE to produce human stem cells and ultimately TISSUES and ORGANS for transplantation. Therapeutic cloning is so called because of the potential therapeutic benefits stem cells possess to alleviate or even cure such debilitating diseases as PARKINSON'S DISEASE, ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE,

DIABETES, stroke, BONE diseases, HEART diseases and SPINAL CORD injuries. By culturing stem cells in the presence of, for example, specific HORMONES they may be able to differentiate into different cell types, including NERVE CELLS for treatment of Parkinson's disease, INSULIN-producing ISLET cells for diabetes, or heart muscle cells for heart diseases. Such an approach would be likely to avoid problems of transplant rejection (see TRANSPLANTATION), if the cells are genetically-identical to the patients’ own. Ethical problems (see BIOETHICS).surround the use of embryonic stem cells in therapeutic cloning because a human embryo has to be found. This may be from a frozen embryo, surplus to requirements for IVF treatment, an aborted FOETUS or an EMBRYO produced using nuclear transfer procedures.Sometimes therapeutic cloning is called spare part cloning.

References in periodicals archive ?
managed to overcome many of the technical problems experienced previously by others, making each step more efficient, and found that therapeutic cloning could work very successfully.
Alison Murdoch, professor of Reproductive Medicine at the University of Newcastle, said: "It is regrettable that Professor Hwang's recent work has been called into question and it is a major blow that human therapeutic cloning now looks to be much more of a challenge than his recent reports led us to believe.
Kass's opposition to therapeutic cloning runs counter to the position taken by the National Academy of Sciences.
A resolution introduced by Belgium and supported by a number of other countries called for a convention that would rule out reproductive cloning to make a baby but let each country decide its own policy regarding therapeutic cloning.
Leading the Newcastle project, Miodrag Stojkovic is one of a group of foreign scientists who have moved to Britain to take advantage of its liberal laws on therapeutic cloning.
The cloning process for both reproductive and therapeutic cloning is identical.
Cloning to create duplicate human babies is outlawed in Britain but so-called therapeutic cloning -which involves the cloning embryos and harvesting stem cells from them -has been legal since 2002.
A group of experts opposed to therapeutic cloning is urging the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) not to grant a licence allowing the research to go ahead.
Hwang's research took the first steps in therapeutic cloning, a process in which stem cells (cells that can become any one of the 200 different cell types present in the human body) are taken from a cloned embryo.
Ironically, the same missionary zeal and self-promotion that West has brought to his crusade to further the cause of therapeutic cloning and life extension is sounding alarm bells among his former fundamentalist allies and others who would like to stop this kind of research in its tracks.
When the President's Council on Bioethics voted on recommendations for the president, every single practicing scientist voted for moving therapeutic cloning forward.
Therapeutic cloning, or cloning for the purpose of research, begins in the same way, but development of the organism is typically halted during an early (blastocyst) stage when the original cell has divided into eight cells.