therapeutic cloning


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therapeutic cloning

n.
The production of embryonic stem cells for use in replacing or repairing damaged tissues or organs, achieved by transferring a diploid nucleus from a body cell into an egg whose nucleus has been removed and by harvesting cells from the resulting blastocyst.
Cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic—i.e., non-germinal/reproductive—cell is transferred into an egg from which the nucleus has been previously removed, in order generate an embryonic stem-cell line, which has the advantage of pluripotency—i.e., the ability to differentiate along multiple pathways except the reproductive pathway

therapeutic cloning

Molecular medicine The cloning of human cell lines to replace nonfunctional tissue. See Cloning.

therapeutic cloning

medical and scientific applications of cloning (see CLONE that do not result in the production of genetically-identical foetuses, but rather involve the use of STEM CELLS grown IN VITRO to provide specific cell lines. Essentially a form of TISSUE CULTURE to produce human stem cells and ultimately TISSUES and ORGANS for transplantation. Therapeutic cloning is so called because of the potential therapeutic benefits stem cells possess to alleviate or even cure such debilitating diseases as PARKINSON'S DISEASE, ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE,

DIABETES, stroke, BONE diseases, HEART diseases and SPINAL CORD injuries. By culturing stem cells in the presence of, for example, specific HORMONES they may be able to differentiate into different cell types, including NERVE CELLS for treatment of Parkinson's disease, INSULIN-producing ISLET cells for diabetes, or heart muscle cells for heart diseases. Such an approach would be likely to avoid problems of transplant rejection (see TRANSPLANTATION), if the cells are genetically-identical to the patients’ own. Ethical problems (see BIOETHICS).surround the use of embryonic stem cells in therapeutic cloning because a human embryo has to be found. This may be from a frozen embryo, surplus to requirements for IVF treatment, an aborted FOETUS or an EMBRYO produced using nuclear transfer procedures.Sometimes therapeutic cloning is called spare part cloning.

References in periodicals archive ?
Professor Murdoch said her team continued to have faith in therapeutic cloning.
In September 2004 President Bush strongly endorsed a United Nations resolution, proposed by Costa Rica, for a global treaty that would completely ban both reproductive cloning/that is, cloning to produce a baby) and therapeutic cloning.
He said that "the negative connotation of the commercial term 'therapeutic cloning' make(s) a change in terminology necessary.
Cloning to create duplicate babies is outlawed in Britain, but therapeutic cloning is legal.
Hwang's research took the first steps in therapeutic cloning, a process in which stem cells (cells that can become any one of the 200 different cell types present in the human body) are taken from a cloned embryo.
Ironically, the same missionary zeal and self-promotion that West has brought to his crusade to further the cause of therapeutic cloning and life extension is sounding alarm bells among his former fundamentalist allies and others who would like to stop this kind of research in its tracks.
Researchers distinguish between "reproductive cloning," which most scientists abhor, and "therapeutic cloning," which may someday allow researchers to use stem cells from a patient's cloned embryo to grow replacement bone marrow, liver cells, or other organs, and which most scientists favor.
Based on this as-yet-remote possibility, this is often called "therapeutic cloning." But since leading scientists warn that turning stem cells into treatments remains decades off at best, a better label is "research cloning."
Therapeutic cloning, or cloning for the purpose of research, begins in the same way, but development of the organism is typically halted during an early (blastocyst) stage when the original cell has divided into eight cells.
However, the bill also prohibits a number of activities, including: reproductive and therapeutic cloning, the creation of embryos for research purposes, germ line alterations, non-medical sex selection and commercial surrogacy.
CAPLAN: Therapeutic cloning is the process wherein embryos are cloned and then destroyed to obtain stem cells for research.
He said that any differentiation between reproductive and therapeutic cloning was unacceptable and that the Vatican opposition to all forms of human cloning was "well known." Even when the result was beneficial, Martino said the church hierarchy opposed the use of embryonic stem cells.

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