In addition to ticks, tsetse fly transmits trypanosomiasis significantly affects in large ruminants; fleas act as vectors for yersiniosis, bartonellosis, haemoplasma and rickettsial infections in dogs and cats; flies causes thelaziasis
, parafilaria infestation, onchocercosis and habronemiosis; sandflies spread leishmaniosis and mosquitoes transmit filariasis in livestock and dogs.
callipaeda infection is endemic in poor communities in Asia, particularly in China (3), where it is frequently reported as being responsible for human thelaziasis with mild to severe symptoms (including lacrimation, epiphora, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and corneal ulcers) (4).
Imported carnivore cases of thelaziasis have also been reported in Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland (11).
We report autochthonous cases of human thelaziasis in Europe.
From June 2005 through August 2006, a total of 4 patients with human thelaziasis were referred to the Department of Emergency and Admissions at Croce and Carle Hospital in Cuneo, Italy, for consultation.
callipaeda in Italy and France in the same area where canine thelaziasis had been reported.
Thus, prevention of human thelaziasis should include control of the fly vector by use of bed nets to protect children while they are sleeping and by keeping their faces and eyes clean.
Thelaziasis were observed in eyes of two Black Bengal goats and treated successfully with Levamisole orally along with instillation of eye drops.
The incidence and therapeutic control of thelaziasis in dogs, buffaloes and human are frequently available in India and abroad (Koyama et al., 2000, Lia et al., 2004) but there are scanty reports available regarding therapeutic management of thelaziasis in goats.