In another experiment, Allen and colleagues in 2004, showed that complete inhibition of all members of multi-gene family of Cor using RNAi, caused an increase the intermediate S--reticuline upstream of codeine, in transgenic plants than codeine, morphine and thebaine
in control plants .
The five major alkaloids are mainly divided into two distinct chemical classes (Reisine 1996:527)--phenanthrenes (morphine, codeine thebaine
) and benzylisoquinolines (papaverine and noscapine).
Ring C-bridged derivatives of thebaine
The new work identifies two enzymes--proteins that cells use to build molecules and make reactions go--involved in turning two of morphine's chemical precursors, thebaine
and codeine, into the final product.
The Australian poppy industry utilizes the Concentrated Poppy Straw process, which processes the dry poppy plant material 'poppy straw' for use in the production of codeine and thebaine
. The Australian Federal Government and the Tasmanian
See Dawn McCormack, "The Search for Monastic Activity in the Upper Desert of the Abydos Region," American Academy of Religion Meeting, presentation November 2007 in San Diego, Calif.; Laure Pantalacci, "Travaux de l'Institut francais d'archeologie orientale en 2004-5: Ermitages de la montagne thebaine
," Bulletin de la Institut francais d'archeologie orientale 105 (2005): 450-51.
India is one of the world's top producers of opium and is the sole producer of licit opium gum utilized by the world's pharmaceutical industries to produce codeine, morphine, narcotine, thebaine
, papaverine and other medical products.
Poppy waste is a by-product of the pharmaceutical production of opiates (morphine, codeine, thebaine
The Opium Poppy is the type of poppy from which opium and many refined opiates, including morphine, thebaine
, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine, are extracted.
(ii) The Committee decided that oripavine (3-O-demethylthebaine, or 6,7,8,14-tetrahydro-4,5,alpha-epoxy-6-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3-ol), a major metabolite of thebaine
, be scheduled in Schedule I of the 1961 Convention.
Of particular interest is plant material that produces alkaloids, especially material from poppy (Papaver sp.) that will yield economically attractive levels of morphinane alkaloids, particularly thebaine
. (US 7,160,706)