resistance

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resistance

 [re-zis´tans]
1. opposition, or counteracting force, as opposition of a conductor to passage of electricity or other energy or substance.
2. the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment; see also immunity.
3. in psychology or psychiatry, conscious or unconscious defenses against change, preventing repressed material from coming into awareness; they can take such forms as forgetfulness, evasions, embarrassment, mental blocks, denial, anger, superficial talk, intellectualization, or intensification of symptoms. It occurs because the blocked association or understanding would be too threatening to face at this point in the therapy; identification of what point the resistance comes at can be an important indicator of the patient's unconscious patterns.
airway resistance the opposition of the tissues of the air passages to air flow: the mouth-to-alveoli pressure difference divided by the rate of air flow. Symbol RA or RAW.
androgen resistance resistance of target organs to the action of androgens, resulting in any of a spectrum of defects from a normal male phenotype in which men have normal genitalia but infertility to complete androgen resistance in which the individual has a female phenotype. Complete androgen resistance is an extreme form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which the individual is phenotypically female but is of XY chromosomal sex; there may be rudimentary uterus and tubes, but the gonads are typically testes, which may be abdominal or inguinal in position. Called also testicular feminization and testicular feminization syndrome. Incomplete androgen resistance is any of various forms less than the complete type, manifested by a male phenotype with various degrees of ambiguous genitalia such as hypospadias and a small vaginal pouch, a hooded phallus, or a bifid scrotum that may or may not contain gonads.
drug resistance the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
insulin resistance see insulin resistance.
multidrug resistance (multiple drug resistance) a phenomenon seen in some malignant cell lines: cells that have developed natural resistance to a single cytotoxic compound are also resistant to structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents. Called also cross-resistance.
peripheral resistance resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles.
pulmonary vascular resistance the vascular resistance of the pulmonary circulation; the difference between the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and the left atrial filling pressure divided by the cardiac output. Called also total pulmonary vascular resistance.
total peripheral resistance the vascular resistance of the systemic circulation: the difference between the mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure divided by the cardiac output.
total pulmonary resistance (total pulmonary vascular resistance) pulmonary vascular resistance.
vascular resistance the opposition to blood flow in a vascular bed; the pressure drop across the bed divided by the blood flow, conventionally expressed in peripheral resistance units. Symbol R or R.

re·sis·tance

(rē-zis'tăns),
1. A force exerted in opposition to an active force.
2. The opposition in a conductor to the passage of a current of electricity, whereby there is a loss of energy and a production of heat; specifically, the potential difference in volts across the conductor per ampere of current flow; unit: ohm. Compare: impedance (1).
3. The opposition to flow of a fluid through one or more passageways (for example, blood flow, respiratory gases in the tracheobronchial tree), analogous to (2); units are usually those of pressure difference per unit flow. Compare: impedance (2).
4. In psychoanalysis, one's unconscious defense against bringing repressed thoughts to consciousness.
5. The ability of red blood cells to resist hemolysis and to preserve their shape under varying degrees of osmotic pressure in the blood plasma.
6. The natural or acquired ability of an organism to maintain its immunity to or to oppose the effects of an antagonistic agent, for example, a toxin, drug, or pathogenic microorganism.
7. In endocrinology, a defective target tissue response to a hormone. Synonym(s): hormone resistance
[L. re-sisto, to stand back, withstand]

resistance

(rĭ-zĭs′təns)
n.
1. The act or an instance of resisting or the capacity to resist.
2. Psychology A process in which the ego opposes the conscious recall of anxiety-producing experiences.
3. Biology
a. Ability (of an organism, tissue, or cell) to withstand a destructive agent or condition such as a chemical compound, a disease agent, or an environmental stressor: antibiotic resistance; resistance to fungal diseases; drought resistance.
b. Lack of normal response to a biologically active compound such as a hormone: insulin resistance.

resistance

Infectious disease The ability of a host to resist a pathogen; able to grow in the presence of a particular antibiotic. See Antibiotic resistance, Drug resistance, HIV drug resistance, Intermediate resistance Medtalk The ability to function in a normal or near-normal fashion, in the face of a toxic environment. See Activated protein C resistance, Airway resistance, Cross-resistance, Hormone resistance, Insulin resistance, Multidrug resistance, Nasal airway resistance, Radioresistance, Variable resistance, Vasopressin resistance Oncology Failure of a cancer to regress after RT or chemotherapy Psychiatry Conscious or unconscious psychologic defense against recall of repressed&ndash. ;.
unconscious thoughts

re·sis·tance

(rĕ-zis'tăns)
1. A passive force exerted in opposition to another active force.
2. The opposition in a conductor to the passage of a current of electricity, whereby energy is lost and heat produced; specifically, the potential difference in volts across the conductor per ampere of current flow; unit: ohm.
Compare: impedance (1)
3. The opposition to flow of a fluid through one or more passageways; units are usually those of pressure difference per unit flow.
Compare: impedance (2)
4. psychoanalysis A person's unconscious defense against bringing repressed thoughts to consciousness.
5. The ability of red blood cells to resist hemolysis and to preserve their shape under varying degrees of osmotic pressure in the blood plasma.
6. The natural or acquired ability of an organism to maintain its immunity to or to resist the effects of an antagonistic agent (e.g., pathogenic microorganism, toxin, drug).
[L. re-sisto, to stand back, withstand]

resistance

any inherited characteristic of an organism that lessens the effect of an adverse environmental factor such as a pathogen or parasite, a biocide (e.g. herbicide, insecticide, antibiotic) or a natural climatic extreme such as drought or high salinity.

re·sis·tance

(rĕ-zis'tăns)
1. Force exerted in opposition to an active force.
2. Opposition to flow of a fluid through one or more passageways.
3. Ability of an organism to maintain its immunity to or to oppose effects of an antagonistic agent.
[L. re-sisto, to stand back, withstand]
References in periodicals archive ?
They're on the path of least resistance. It's just too hard to close down a school and launch a "fresh start."
Manifold and nozzle seals that fail will allow the plastic to flow from that point outboard and follow the path of least resistance. The plastic will flow through wire channels in a laminar manner, so the resin around the initial point of failure will be more burned (degraded).
One of my favorite quotes is: "The path of least resistance makes crooked rivers and crooked men." Buying a business is not easy Neither is selling one.
"Blood takes the path of least resistance, as we all tend to do.
"As it is generated in the landfill environment, it will find the path of least resistance to the surface," says the consultant to the landfill industry.
* Brendon Connelly, director of Graduate and Professional Studies Admissions at George Fox University (Ore.), writes the often humorous "Slacker Manager: Paving the path of least resistance, so you don't trip and fall," at slackermanager.com.
Where Japan can apply laser-like focus to solve a problem, China's approach is more multi-pronged, often seeming to search out the path of least resistance. Again, I offer the example of the Silk Road.
Contributors share O*NET OnLine and other resources to help all students make informed career choices rather than take the path of least resistance. They also offer a road map for a K-12 career development system.
Choi, Madrian, Metrick, and I find that 401(k) plan participants follow the path of least resistance in every investment decision that they make.
"Most representatives always go for the path of least resistance, so if they can sell the annuity, they get the quick commission, and they leave the life sale on the table," said Pinkans.
"If the water overflows the stream banks, it's going to seek the path of least resistance. In most cases, that's going to be the roadways."
To avoid auditor scrutiny, managers will take the path of least resistance, and make poor judgment calls in the process.