Neurologists, neurosurgeons, and others from North America, Europe, and Asia discuss the history of movement disorders surgery, and the pathophysiology, functional neuroanatomy, clinical presentation, and medical management of ParkinsonAEs disease, dystonia, and essential tremor, including an overview of basal ganglia thalamocortical
Since the SSEP signals are series of waves that reflect sequential activation of neural structures along the somatosensory pathways, monitoring these signals by electrodes positioned along these pathways can aid in detecting any dysfunction from the level of the peripheral nerve, through the spinal root, spinal cord, brain stem, and thalamocortical
projections, up to the primary somatosensory cortex.
Muller, "Partially enhanced thalamocortical
functional connectivity in autism," Brain Research, vol.
Previous studies reported that LAS is responsible for the hyperactivity of the thalamocortical
pathway, which is modulating by the motorrelated cortical areas such as SMA and M1 [8, 9].
With these amounts of random links, the percentages of thalamocortical
synapses and of callosal synapses related to cortical neurons are comparable to those found in actual nervous systems, as mentioned below.
Raichle, "Noninvasive functional and structural connectivity mapping of the human thalamocortical
system," Cerebral Cortex, vol.
used the nonlinear correlation coefficient to study functional connectivity between the thalamus and selected cortical regions based on stereo-electroencephalogram (SEEG) recorded from patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and found that, at the end of seizure, the global synchronization index and the thalamic synchronization index negatively correlated with seizure duration, which indicated that the thalamocortical
synchronization contributed to seizure termination .
It is known that a rhythms are mainly modulated by thalamocortical
interactions, which modulate the transmission of sensorimotor and cognitive information among subcortical and cortical pathways [44-46].
Afferent information is also separately sent to the cortex (thalamocortical
Likewise, other studies showed that the same intervention (visual deprivation) strengthens thalamocortical
synapses in the spared A1 in juvenile mice .
Preuss TM, Goldman-Rakic PS: Crossed corticothalamic and thalamocortical
connections of macaque prefrontal cortex.
This decreased inhibitory activity from basal ganglia neurons leads to unrestrained thalamocortical
drive and the appearance of dyskinesias (22-24).