tetrodotoxin


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tetrodotoxin

 [tet´ro-do-tok″sin]
a highly lethal neurotoxin present in numerous species of puffer fish and in newts of the genus Taricha (in the latter it is called tarichatoxin); ingestion results in tetrodotoxism.

tet·ro·do·tox·in (TTX),

(tet'rō-dō-tok'sin),
A potent neurotoxin found in the liver and ovaries of the Japanese pufferfish, Sphoeroides rubripes, other species of pufferfish, and some newts; produces axonal blocks of the preganglionic cholinergic fibers and the somatic motor nerves. Tetrodotoxin blocks voltage-gated Na+ channels in excitable tissues.

tetrodotoxin

(tĕ-trō′də-tŏk′sĭn)
n.
A potent neurotoxin, C11H17N3O8, found in many pufferfishes and certain other animals, including some salamanders and crabs.

tetrodotoxin

A potent, heat-stable neurotoxin concentrated in certain tissues—liver, gonads, intestines and skin of fishes of order Tetraodontoidea (ocean sunfish, porcupine fish, and pufferfish/fugu); it is also present in lethal amounts in the California newt and eastern salamander.
 
Mechanism of action
Tetrodotoxin blocks conduction of sodium across membranes and neural transmission in skeletal muscle, and kills up to 60% of those who ingest it.
 
Clinical findings
Paraesthaesias begin 10-45 minute after ingestion, commonly as intraoral and tongue tingling; often associated with nausea, vomiting, light-headedness, vertigo, a sense of doom, weakness, hypersalivation, muscle twitching, diaphoresis, pleuritic chest pain, dysphagia, aphonia, convulsions, hypotension, bradycardia, depressed corneal reflexes, fixed dilated pupils.
 
Management
IV hydration, gastric lavage, activated charcoal.

tetrodotoxin

Toxicology A potent heat-stable neurotoxin concentrated in fishes of order Tetraodontoidea; tetrodotoxin blocks conduction of sodium across membranes, and neural transmission in skeletal muscle, and kills up to 60% of those who ingest it, causing 50 deaths/yr in Japan Clinical Paresthesias begin 10-45 mins after ingestion, commonly as intraoral and tongue tingling, often associated with N&V, lightheadedness, vertigo, feelings of doom, weakness, hypersalivation, muscle twitching, diaphoresis, pleuritic chest pain, dysphagia, aphonia, convulsions, hypotension, bradycardia, depressed corneal reflexes, and fixed dilated pupils Management IV hydration, gastric lavage, activated charcoal

tetrodotoxin

Puffer fish toxin, one of the most powerful known neurotoxins with a mortality of about 50%. There is no known antidote.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hanifin, "The chemical and evolutionary ecology of tetrodotoxin (TTX) toxicity in terrestrial vertebrates," Marine Drugs, vol.
There is no antitoxin for tetrodotoxin and treatment is supportive.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was extracted from the gonads of Puffer fish Lagocephalus lunaris obtained from the Red Sea.
This is supported by the facts that (1) the [H.sub.2]S-induced secretory response in these preparations is inhibited by tetrodotoxin and (2) it is absent in the human colon epithelial cell line T84 [44].
In contrast, block of neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin (TTX) increases the Ntype fraction to 87%.
Tetrodotoxin blocks voltage-gated sodium channels, preventing the propagation of action potentials and inducing paralysis in susceptible animals.
On June 13, 2014, two patients went to the Hennepin County Medical Center Emergency Department in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with symptoms suggestive of tetrodotoxin poisoning (i.e., oral paresthesias, weakness, and dyspnea) after consuming dried puffer fish (also known as globefish) purchased during a recent visit to New York City.
In this series of 26 cases, samples of the suspected seafood in 21 cases were tested by the CDC or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as negative for the following known aquatic toxins: ciguatoxin, saxitoxin, brevetoxin, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, domoic acid, okadaic acid, and two blue-green algal or cyanobacterial toxins (microcystin and nodularin).
There is rumored to be a powerful drug made from Tetrodotoxin, an immensely poisonous compound derived from the puffer fish, combined with a dissociative drug called Datura, itself also a natural product.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was obtained from Aladdin Chemistry Co., Ltd.
[22] Coencapsulation of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in controlled-release devices containing bupivacaine and dexamethasone resulted in exceedingly prolonged nerve blocks.