tetracaine


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anesthetic

 [an″es-thet´ik]
1. pertaining to, characterized by, or producing anesthesia.
2. a drug or agent used to abolish the sensation of pain, to achieve adequate muscle relaxation during surgery, to calm fear and allay anxiety, and to produce amnesia for the event.

Inhalational anesthetics are gases or volatile liquids that produce general anesthesia when inhaled. The commonly used inhalational agents are halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. Older agents, such as ether and cyclopropane, are now used infrequently. The mechanism of action of all inhalational anesthetics is thought to involve uptake of the gas in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and interaction with the membrane proteins, resulting in inhibition of synaptic transmission of nerve impulses. For surgical anesthesia, these agents are usually used with preanesthetic medication, which includes sedatives or opiates to relieve preoperative and postoperative pain and tranquilizers to reduce anxiety. Neuromuscular blocking agents are used as muscle relaxants during surgery. They include tubocurarine, metocurine, succinylcholine, pancuronium, atracurium, and vecuronium.

Intravenous anesthetics are sedative hypnotic drugs that produce anesthesia in large doses. The most common of these are the phenol derivative propofol and ultra–short acting barbiturates such as thiopental and methohexital; these can be used alone for brief surgical procedures or for rapid induction of anesthesia maintained by inhalational anesthetics.

Other intravenous methods of anesthesia are neuroleptanalgesia, which uses a combination of the butyrophenone tranquilizer droperidol and the opioid fentanyl; neuroleptanesthesia, which uses neuroleptanalgesia plus nitrous oxide; and dissociative anesthesia, which uses ketamine, a drug related to the hallucinogens that produces profound analgesia.

Local anesthetics are drugs that block nerve conduction in the region where they are applied. They act by altering permeability of nerve cells to sodium ions and thus blocking conduction of nerve impulses. They may be applied topically or injected into the tissues. The first local anesthetic was cocaine. Synthetic local anesthetics are all given names ending in -caine; examples are procaine and lidocaine.

tetracaine

(tĕt′rə-kān′)
n.
A crystalline compound, C15H24N2O2, related to procaine and used in its hydrochloride form as a local anesthetic.
References in periodicals archive ?
An audience member suggested another recipe: LAC gel (lidocaine, adrenaline, and tetracaine, mixed with simple cellulose), which he has been using for the past 6 months.
A systematic review by Filos KS et al [10] using a wide variety of spinal clonidine doses as adjuvant to subarachnoid bupivacaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine or tetracaine found that 15 to 150 [micro]g prolonged in a linear, dose-dependent manner.
Dermal anaesthesia bu the topical application of tetracaine base dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide.
examined the effects of various adrenoceptor agonists including dexmedetomidine, tetracaine, oxymetazoline and Clonidine and also an 0C2 adrenoceptor antagonist (Atipamezole) on Compound Action Potential (CAP) recorded from frog sciatic nerve and found that CAPs were inhibited by 0C2 adrenoceptor agents, so that they are able to block nerve conduction.
Many drugs find place in drug armamentarium in regional techniques of obstetric analgesia such as xylocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine etc.
(10.) Brooker RF, Butterworth JF 4th, Kitzman DW, Berman JM, Kashtan HI, McKinley AC Treatment of hypotension after hyperbaric tetracaine spinal anesthesia.
found that the addition of intrathecal nalbuphine 0.4 mg to hyperbaric tetracaine, compared with intrathecal morphine 0.4 mg for SAB, improved the quality of intraoperative and postoperative analgesia, with fewer side-effects.
(9) Oral clonidine premedication produces a significant prolongation of spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine (10) or tetracaine (11) and provides better pain relief in the early postoperative period after minor orthopedic surgeries.
(14) Kosugi et al., (2010) examined the effects of various adrenoceptor agonists including dexmedetomidine, tetracaine, oxymetazoline and clonidine, and also an [alpha]2 adrenoceptor antagonist (atipamezole) on compound action potential (CAP) recorded from frog sciatic nerve, and found that CAPs were inhibited by [alpha]2 adrenoceptor.
Pliaglis, a lidocaine and tetracaine (7%/7%) formulation, is a prescription topical local anesthetic cream approved in over 25 countries that provides safe and effective local dermal anesthesia on intact skin prior to superficial dermatological procedures such as dermal filler injections, pulsed dye laser therapy, facial laser resurfacing and laser-assisted tattoo removal.
Long acting anesthetics drugs such as etidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, ropivacaine are mainly used for postoperative and intraoperative pain management.