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tetherinA 29–33-kD type-II transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by BST2 on chromosome 19p131, which is expressed on some synovial cells, bone marrow stem cell lines, and type-I IFN-producing cells. It may be involved in sorting secreted proteins, and in pre-B-cell growth. It is an antiretroviral defense protein, blocking the release of enveloped virus from the cell surface. It is active against retroviruses, filoviruses, arenaviruses, and herpesviruses; is depleted upon HIV-1 infection by viral VPU protein via 20S proteasome degradation, and on infection by HHV-8 by ubiquitination and degradation. It may play a role in B-cell activation in rheumatoid arthritis.
Tetherin/BST2 is up-regulated on most cell types after stimulation with type-I IFNs and IFN-gamma, and is highly expressed on terminally differentiated dendritic cells.
Myeloma, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma cells.