Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Encyclopedia.
Related to tetanus toxin: tetanus vaccine
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).
the neurotropic, heat-labile exotoxin of Clostridium tetani and the cause of tetanus; it has been isolated as a crystalline protein (molecular weight 67,000), is one of the most poisonous substances known, and seems to function by blocking inhibitory synaptic impulses.
the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).
tet·a·nus tox·in(tet'ă-nŭs tok'sin)
The neurotropic, heat-labile exotoxin of Clostridium tetani and the cause of tetanus; it is one of the most poisonous substances known, and seems to function by blocking inhibitory synaptic impulses.
a highly fatal disease of all animal species caused by the neurotoxin of Clostridium tetani. The bacterial spores are deposited in tissue, usually by traumatic injury, retained placenta or endometrial injury and under anaerobic conditions vegetate. Clinical features of the disease are remarkably similar in all species but there are differences in susceptibility to the disease. The muscle spasms cause a stiff gait, rigid posture (sometimes called 'sawhorse stance'), extension or elevation of the tail, protrusion of the third eyelid and trismus (lockjaw). Horses show flaring of the nostrils. In dogs, spasms of facial muscles cause abnormally erect ears and retraction of the lips that resembles the 'risus sardonicus' seen in humans with tetanus. Stimulation precipitates generalized muscle contractions and tetanic spasms or convulsions. The disease can be prevented by immunization with tetanus toxoid or the use of antitoxin, but this is done routinely only in humans and horses.
see tetanus antitoxin.
a loosely defined syndrome of outbreaks of tetanus in young cattle without a wound being found; current practice is to refer to such outbreaks as being caused by the ingestion of pre-formed tetanus toxin.
tetany occurs predominantly in one limb, closest to the site of entry of the organism, but then usually spreads to the opposite limb and then the whole body. Seen in dogs and particularly cats.
see tetanus toxin.
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, some higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Antigenic toxins, produced by bacteria or helminths, stimulate production of antitoxins. Exotoxins are produced by bacteria and diffuse into surroundings, e.g. tetanus toxin, or can be ingested preformed, e.g. botulinum toxin. Endotoxins are released into the surrounding tissue only when the bacteria break down. They are lipopolysaccharides and form part of the cell wall, e.g. coliform endotoxins. Metabolic toxins, e.g. toxic amines absorbed from damaged intestine, ketones, lactic acid from carbohydrate engorgement, ammonia in liver damage, creatinine in renal dysfunction. See also metabolic toxins.
an exotoxin produced by certain bacteria that causes extensive local necrosis on intradermal inoculation.
the potent neurotoxic exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Called also tetanospasmin.