tetanus toxin


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Related to tetanus toxin: tetanus vaccine

toxin

 [tok´sin]
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
streptococcal toxin a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).

tet·a·nus tox·in

the neurotropic, heat-labile exotoxin of Clostridium tetani and the cause of tetanus; it has been isolated as a crystalline protein (molecular weight 67,000), is one of the most poisonous substances known, and seems to function by blocking inhibitory synaptic impulses.
Synonym(s): tetanotoxin

tet·a·nus tox·in

(tet'ă-nŭs tok'sin)
The neurotropic, heat-labile exotoxin of Clostridium tetani and the cause of tetanus; it is one of the most poisonous substances known, and seems to function by blocking inhibitory synaptic impulses.
References in periodicals archive ?
In this regard, production and characterization of different parts of tetanus toxin (especially LC and Hcc subdonaains) are important for understanding the intoxication mechanisms and also for production of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.
After blocking the membrane with blocking buffer (PBS-T+5% non-fat skim milk) overnight at 4[degrees]C, and then washing four times with PBS-T, human anti tetanus toxin polyclonal antibodies (prepared in our lab) were added at 10 [mu]g/ml and the membrane was incubated with gentle rocking at RT for 1.5 hr.
and LC (10 [mu]g/ml), tetanus toxin (10 [mu]g/ml) and toxoid (10 [mu]g/m1) (Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran) in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS, 0.15 M, pH=7.2) overnight at 4[degrees]C.
Reactivity of anti-TeNT monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to tetanus toxin, toxoid, fragment C, recombinant [H.sub.CC] (r[H.sub.CC]) and recombinant light chain (rLC).
botulinum/neurotoxins Zinc- A-G metalloprotease Clostridium tetani/ Zinc- tetanus toxin metalloprotease Organism/toxin Target Disease Damage membranes Aeromonas Glycophorin Diarrhea hydrophila/aerolysin Clostridium Cholesterol Gas perfringens/ gangrene(c) perfringolysin O Escherichia coli/ Plasma membrane UTIs hemolysin(d) Listeria monocytogenes/ Cholesterol Foodborne systemic listeriolysin O illness meningitis Staphyloccocus aureus/ Plasma membrane Abcesses(c) [Alpha]-toxin Streptococcus Cholesterol Pneumonia(c) pneumoniae/ pneumolysin Streptococcus pyogenes/ Cholesterol Strep throat Sf(c) streptolysin O Inhibit protein synthesis Corynebacterium Elongation factor 2 Diphtheria diphtheriae/ diphtheria toxin E.
Formaldehyde treatment is used to detoxify the diphtheria and tetanus toxins for vaccine formulation.
The structure and mode of action of botulinum and tetanus toxins. In: Rood JI, McClane BA, Songer JG, Titball RW, editors.
In addition to receiving medication to address the tetanus toxins, he had to be sedated, kept in a darkened room, and wear ear plugs to minimize sensory input that caused his body to tense up; muscle relaxants alone did not prevent the painful spasms.
Tetanus toxins injected directly into rats' brains.