testicular self-examination


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Testicular Self-Examination

 

Definition

A testicular self-examination (TSE) is the procedure by which a man checks the appearance and consistency of his testes.

Purpose

Most testicular cancers are first noticed by the man himself. Men should do a TSE every month to find out if the testes contain any suspicious lumps or other irregularities, which could be signs of cancer or infection.

Precautions

None.

Description

A TSE should take place during a warm shower or bath, when the skin is warm, wet, and soapy. The man needs to step out of the tub so that he is in front of a mirror. The heat from the tub or shower will relax the scrotum (sac containing the testes) and the skin will be softer and thinner, making it easier to feel a lump. It is important that the exam be done very gently.
The man should stand facing his mirror and look for swelling on the scrotum. Using both hands, the scrotum should be gently lifted so that the area underneath can be checked.
The next step is examination by hand. The index and middle fingers should be placed under each testicle, with the thumbs on top. The testes should be examined one at a time. The man should roll each testicle between his fingers and thumbs. He should feel for lumps of any size (even as small as a pea) particularly on the front or side of each testicle. He should also look for soreness or irregularities. Next, the epididymis and vas deferens, located on the top and back of the testes, should be felt. This area feels like a cord, and should not be tender.

Normal results

It is normal for one testicle to be larger than the other is, and for them to hang at different levels; but the size should stay the same from one month to the next. The testes should be free from lumps, pain, irregularities and swelling.

Abnormal results

A TSE is considered abnormal if any swelling, tenderness, lumps, or irregularities are found. Hard, unmoving lumps are abnormal, even if they are painless. A lump could be a sign of an infection or a cancerous tumor. A change in testicle size from one month to the next is also abnormal. A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum is another abnormal sign. If any abnormality is found, a man is encouraged to check with his doctor as soon as possible because testicular cancer is highly curable if found early.

Resources

Books

Hainsworth, John D., and F. Anthony Greco. "Testis." In Cancer Treatment, edited by Charles M. Haskell, 5th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001.
Seidel, Henry M., et al. Mosby's Guide to Physical Examination. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, Inc., 1999.

Other

"Questions and Answers About Testicular Cancer." National Cancer Institute. February 2000. http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/6_34.htm.

Key terms

Epididymis — A tube in the back of the testes that transports sperm.
Scrotum — The pouch containing the testes.
Testes — Egg-shaped male gonads located in the scrotum. Testes is the plural form of testis, which is a testicle.
Vas deferens — A tube that is a continuation of the epididymis. This tube transports sperm from the testis to the prostatic urethra.

tes·tic·u·lar self-ex·am·i·na·tion

(TSE) (tes-tik'yū-lăr self'eg-zam'i-nā'shŭn)
Procedure for detecting tumors and other abnormalities in the testes.

testicular self-examination

A technique that enables a man to detect changes in the size and shape of his testicles and evaluate any tenderness. Each testicle is examined separately and in comparison with the other. The best time to perform the test is just after a warm bath or shower when the scrotal tissue is relaxed. The man places his thumbs on the anterior surface of the testicle, supporting it with the index and middle fingers of both hands. Each testicle is gently rolled between the fingers and thumbs and carefully felt for lumps, hardness, or thickening, esp. as compared with the other testicle. The epididymis is a soft, slightly tender, tubelike body behind the testicle. Abnormal findings should be reported immediately to a health care professional.
References in periodicals archive ?
Young men's knowledge of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination: a lost opportunity?
Testicular self-examination by young men: An analysis of characteristics associated with practice.
Young men's awareness, attitudes and practice of testicular self-examination: A health action process approach.
The questions were subcategorized into ten areas: (1) education of female athletes about breast self-examination, (2) education of female athletes about breast cancer, (3) education of male athletes about testicular self-examination, (4) education of male athletes about testicular cancer, (5) knowledge of the risk factors of breast cancer, (6) knowledge of the risk factors of testicular cancer, (7) breast self-examination techniques, (8) testicular self-examination techniques, (9) preventive behaviors of breast cancer, and (10) preventive behaviors of testicular cancer.
2) A positive relationship exists between the Health Belief Model variables and the extent of testicular self-examination instruction.
For a number of reasons, we also included information on testicular self-examination in the consultation.
(800) 813-HOPE www.cancercare.org C-Change (202) 756-1600 www.c-chanetogether.org Lance Armstrong Foundation http://www.laf.org/ National Cancer Institute www.cancer.gov National Lymphedema Network http://www.lymphnet.org/resourceGuide/findTreatment.htm The Testicular Cancer Resource Center http://www.acor.org/TCRC/patient_links.html Testicular Self-Examination http://www.cancernetwork.com/PatientGuides/Testes_Examination.htm Diagnosis
Rates of routine testicular self-examination (TSE) are unknown but probably negligible since health education in this arena is sparse.
Also, where else would you find information on your first job next door to a new discount at Miss Selfridge, or a free trip to Dublin jostling with advice on testicular self-examination?!
Such education should include instruction about performing testicular self-examination for cancer, torsion, and varicocele and about wearing proper protective gear while playing sports.
For any patient with persisting palpable scrotal masses, instruction in testicular self-examination and periodic physician reassessment should be considered as well.
Men can improve their chance of finding a testicular cancer by performing a simple procedure called testicular self-examination (TSE) once a month.