There are two causes of hypogonadism; primary testicular failure
which is also called hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and secondary testicular failure
which is also called hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
Donor sperms- There are also cases of complete testicular failure
with abnormal hormones and no sperms.
Aitken, "Adrenal insufficiency and testicular failure
secondary to megestrol acetate therapy in a patient with cystic fibrosis," Pediatric Pulmonology, vol.
Hypogonadism may be hypergonadotropic (primary testicular failure
with loss of feedback inhibition leading to increased LH and FSH) or hypogonadotropic (hypothalamic-pituitary disease causing absolute or relative gonadotropin deficiency).
In males, hypogonadism is commonly seen and may have primary testicular failure
. The earliest and most common presenting feature is postaxial polydactyly.
Serum FSH elevations are indicative of disturbances in spermatogenesis such as primary testicular failure
(hypergonadotropic hypogonadism), although normal FSH levels do not dismiss spermatogenic failure.
Patients with azoospermia, total necrospermia, recurrent varicocele, and pituitary hormonal abnormalities (such as high LH, FSH denoting primary testicular failure
) were excluded from the study.
Patients with Klinefelter syndrome tend to have a pattern of primary testicular failure
, such as low to low-normal testosterone and elevated luteinizing hormone (LH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), and serum estradiol.
Testosterone deficiency can result from defects in testicular production of androgens (primary testicular failure
), at the hypothalamic-pituitary level (secondary failure), or from combined mechanisms.
Previously azoospermic men with serum follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations greater than 2 to 3 times normal were designated as having severe testicular failure
not amenable to conventional therapy, and a diagnostic testicular biopsy was considered unnecessary.
Gonadotropin levels can help delineate whether hypogonadism is caused by primary testicular failure
(hypergonadotropic hypogonadism) or by pituitary disease (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism).
She and her colleagues recently uncovered deficiencies in mismatch repair genes in some men with testicular failure
, predominantly those with Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (Mol.