LRA (Lower Renal Artery) passing Precavally, giving Testicular Artery
. DRV (Double Renal Vein) also Seen
Later, when the reevaluation of patient's arteriography was done, it showed that the left testicular artery
originated from the renal arteries.[sup] This indicates the importance of the arteriography or Doppler ultrasound examination of the renal hilum before any surgical procedure within and around the renal hilar region.[sup]
reaches the caudal extremity of the testis and becomes divided in cranial and caudal branches in 80% of the samples (Figure 1C), they will originate a variable number of cranial (1 to 6) and caudal branches (1 to 4) in 20% of the remaining samples (Figure 1D).
(3) In partial torsion, flow may be present on color Doppler, but spectral imaging can show high resistance waveforms within the testicular artery
Although some scientists suggested that collateral blood flow through the cremasteric and deferential arteries is ineffective in cases of testicular artery
ligation (Raman & Goldstein, 2004), the anastomotic channels between the testicular artery
and deferential artery have been demonstrated by dissection and radiographic studies (Mostaf et al.; Polguj et al.,).
The rest of the course of the right testicular artery
The collateral blood flow is typically not adequate to provide viability to the testicle if the testicular artery
The right superior testicular artery
took origin at the normal level and crossed right ureter, right psoas major muscle and inferior vena cava while the right inferior testicular artery
took origin 3 cm below the superior testicular artery
above bifurcation of abdominal aorta and crossed right common iliac artery.
The right renal artery gave rise to the middle suprarenal branches, right testicular artery
and a large aberrant branch arising 3cm from the hilum of the right kidney.
(1) Experimental evidence indicates that 720 degree torsion is required to compromise flow through the testicular artery
resulting in ischemia (3).
However, the last two authors refer just to the presence of a testicular artery
for testis irrigation, while our results corroborate with those by Gray, where several small testicular arteries reach the testis.