The (https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDEQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibtimes.co.uk%2Farticles%2F487676%2F20130708%2Fedward-snowden-nsa-uk-gchq-tempora-data.htm&ei=BYdNUqWBA8KI0AWDtoGwCw&usg=AFQjCNGvC8s3plPGTHTqsYtocFUIgLPC6w&bvm=bv.53537100,d.d2k) Tempora
programme is given legal authority by the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (Ripa) which has been in force since 2000 and oversees all collection of data by the UK government.
has been running for around 18 months and allows GCHQ to tap into and store huge volumes of data drawn from fiber-optic cables for up to 30 days, the paper said.
Filed in the Investigatory Powers Tribunal (IPT), (https://www.privacyinternational.org/sites/privacyinternational.org/files/downloads/press-releases/privacy_international_ipt_grounds.pdf) the claim challenges Whitehall along with BT, Vodafone Cable, Verizon Business, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute, who (http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/487676/20130708/edward-snowden-nsa-uk-gchq-tempora-data.htm) were all recently identified as collaborating with GCHQ's Tempora
mass surveillance programme.
Where Merisalo reads (lines 39-40) "dira et turbulenta tempora
" (with no variant in the apparatus), the Paris edition reads "dura et turbulenta tempora
" (perhaps a banalization).