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1. the pigmented projection at the tip of each breast; it is smaller in men than women. In women it gives outlet to the lactiferous ducts. Called also mammary papilla, mammilla, and teat.
2. any structure shaped like the nipple of the breast; see papilla.

The nipples are located slightly to the side rather than in the middle of the breasts. Usually, the size of the nipple is in proportion to the size of the breast, but large nipples may be found on small breasts and vice versa.

Surrounding the nipple is a pigmented area called the areola. The color of the areola varies with the complexion. In childless women, it is usually reddish. During pregnancy it increases in size and darkens in color, becoming almost black in brunettes. The color fades after the milk-producing period ends. The tip of the female nipple contains tiny depressions that are openings of the lactiferous ducts. During pregnancy special care should be given the nipples. Any secretion that accumulates should be gently washed off. If the nipples are tender, the physician will advise the use of cold cream, cocoa butter, lanolin, or another emollient to increase their pliability.


(nip'ĕl), [TA]
A bulblike or buttonlike projection at the apex of the breast on the surface of which the lactiferous ducts open; it is surrounded by a circular pigmented area, the areola.
Synonym(s): papilla mammae [TA], mammilla (2) , papilla of breast, teat (1) , thele, thelium (3)
[dim. of A.S. neb, beak, nose (?)]


(tēt) nipple (1).


(tēt, tĭt)
A nipple of the mammary gland; a mamilla.

teat′ed adj.


(nip'ĕl) [TA]
A blunt conic projection at the apex of the breast on the surface of which the lactiferous ducts open; it is surrounded by a circular pigmented area, the areola.
Synonym(s): mammilla (2) , teat (1) , thelium (3) .
[dim. of A.S. neb, beak]


1. The pectoral surface of the thorax.
2. The organ of milk secretion; one of two hemispheric projections situated in the subcutaneous tissue anterior to the pectoralis major muscle on either side of the thorax or chest of the mature female; it is rudimentary in the male.
Synonym(s): mamma [TA] , teat (2) .
[A.S. breōst]


, pl. papillae (pă-pil'ă, -ē) [TA]
Any small, nipplelike process.
See also: dental papilla
Synonym(s): teat (3) .
[L. a nipple, dim. of papula, a pimple]


nipple, especially the large nipples of ruminants; the cistern of the mammary gland opens into the teat cistern (lactiferous sinus) which communicates with the exterior through the teat canal(s) or lactiferous duct(s), of which there may be one (cow), two (mare), or several (sow, bitch). The openings of these ducts are kept closed by a sphincter muscle. When the lactating female is stimulated to let down her milk the teat cistern fills with milk under pressure. At other times the teat is limp. See also teat cup, teat cup liner, teat dip, teat sinus.

accessory teat
a supernumerary teat, especially a small one; very common in cows; may be attached to secreting mammary tissue; may have separate ductal systems or be offshoots from an existing, major duct.
teat angulation
teats which stick out at an angle instead of straight down are an inconvenience in a modern milking parlor especially if automatic cup placers are in use. Considered to be an inherited defect.
teat blackpox
see black spot (1).
blind teat
characterized by the obvious presence of milk in the mammary gland but no milk can be gained through the teat orifice, nor can a teat cannula or sound be passed into the mammary gland cistern. The defect may be congenital with all or any part of the teat cistern and canal not present, or the defect may be at the junction of the teat and gland cisterns. Acquired permanent blockage of the duct system is usually due to trauma, occasionally infection, and can similarly be at any point in the teat cistern or duct. See also blind quarter.
bottle teat
a cow's teat with a very distended base tapering down to a narrow neck at the tip; resembles an inverted bottle. They are a defect because of the difficulty in putting on the teat cups.
teat calculus
mineralized concretions in the mammary ductal system; called also lactolith, milk stone.
teat cannula
short, narrow, 1 inch diameter round-pointed metal or plastic tube used to pass from the exterior, through the teat canal and into the teat cistern. Used to relieve pressure in the gland when the teat canal is obstructed. Well-designed ones have a bulge followed by a constriction near the hub so that the tube is self-retaining. Called also teat tube.
teat chap
superficial erythema, soreness due usually to continued wetting; a sequel to use of a too concentrated or otherwise irritant teat dip.
teat cistern
the cavity inside the teat. Called also teat sinus.
congenital teat defect
includes supernumerary teats, fused teats, absence of the mammary gland and teat, absence of a teat canal or cistern, imperforate udder cistern orifice, teat angulation in cows; in sows insufficient teats, teats too far posteriorly, inverted or vestigial teats.
teat dipping
the dipping of teats of dairy cows in a long-acting disinfectant at the end of each milking. It is an essential part of the NIRD mastitis control program. See also teat dip.
teat fibroma
rare tumor of heifer teats.
teat fibrosarcoma
rare tumor of heifer teats or udder.
teat fistula
laceration of the teat wall in a lactating cow results in a permanent leaker so that milk drains out continuously and the quarter is at great risk from infection.
teat flora
considered to be normal, i.e. without pathogenetic significance, in dairy cows-Staphylococcus hyicus, S. epidermidis, Corynebacterium bovis, coagulase negative staphylococci.
fused teat's
two teats joined together along their length, with a common teat cistern.
imperforate teat
a congenitally obstructed teat due to failure of formation of the teat canal (lactiferous duct).
insufficient teat's
12 is minimal in sows.
teat inversion
the tip of the teat is inverted so that the meatus of the teat canal is in a hollow. The end of the teat may close over the sphincter and obstruct it during sucking; an inherited defect in sows.
teat leak
see teat fistula (above).
teat lesions
common site for lesions caused by epitheliotropic viruses, e.g. cowpox, mammillitis; trauma common cause, tread lesions in housed cows, barbed wire cuts in cows at pasture; infections, e.g. udder acne transmitted by teat cup liners or milker's hands.
milking machine teat injuries
misplaced teat
e.g. too far back in sows so that piglets cannot get access when the sow is lying down.
teat necrosis
in piglets born onto rough, abrasive floors; may not be apparent until mature.
teat occlusion
due usually to tread trauma; rarely a congenital defect in which case all teats are usually affected.
teat orifice
the opening to the papillary duct; normally held closed by the sphincter muscle in the wall of the teat and elastic tissue around the orifice. Invasion through the orifice is the primary route in the causation of most cases of mastitis.
teat papillomas
are better described as fibropapillomas of the bovine teat. May be long tag-like structures, or white sessile nodules 0.5 inch diameter or ricegrain nodules all caused by different strains of a papovavirus.
teat photosensitive dermatitis
part of a generalized dermatitis (except in poisoning by corticosteroid); characterized by localization of inflammation to lateral teat surface.
teat polyp
in teat cistern causes intermittent obstruction requiring surgical removal.
rudimentary teat
standard equipment in males; inherited defect in cows.
teat sanitization
cleaning and disinfection before milking; most farmers reduce this to a wash with running cold water followed, in meticulous parlors, by drying with a paper towel.
teat sealers, teat sealant
are materials used to aid in bovine mastitis control.
1. a polyvinylpyrrolidone preparation used to put on teat skin to seal milk orifice and protect skin against infection for long periods.
2. an inert preparation to be infused into the teat at drying off to protect against new infections during the dry period.
teat siphon
see teat tube (below).
teat slitter
a surgical instrument in the form of 2 mm diameter tube containing a sharp cutting blade concealed in its tip. The slitter is introduced into the teat cistern in the closed position, opened so that the blade protrudes and then withdrawn so as to slit the stenosed sphincter.
teat slough
as part of gangrene of the gland.
teat sphincter
the muscle in the teat wall around the external orifice of the teat; its relaxation is necessary for the rapid expulsion of milk during 'let-down'.
teat sphincter contracted
due usually to injury; milking is uneven with much milk left in the affected quarter; requires surgical dilation.
teat spider
membranous obstruction of the teat canal.
teat stenosis
partial obstruction of the teat canal or cistern as a result of injury or inflammation.
teat stripping
removing the last of the milk in the teat after machine milking by occluding the teat at the top between the thumb and forefinger and then pulling downwards so as to express all the milk from the teat. See also machine stripping, hand stripping, handmilking.
supernumerary teat
see supernumerary teats; see also accessory teat (above).
teat tube
a 1.5 mm diameter metal or plastic tube with a tapered end for insertion in the external orifice of the cow's teat. Exit from the lumen is via holes in the side wall of the tube. Vary in length from 1.5 to 4 inches depending on purpose. Used mostly for the infusion of medicament into the teat and udder, but also for clearing the teat canal and cistern of debris and for evacuating milk from a quarter with a blocked teat. Called also teat siphon, teat cannula.
teat tuberculoid granulomas
granulomas in the teat wall and lower udder contain Mycobacterium terrae. See also enzootic nodular thelitis.
teat ulcerative dermatitis
deep ulcers in cows bedded on infected straw.
vestigial teat
rudimentary non-functional teats.
teat wart
see teat papillomatosis.

Patient discussion about teat

Q. how do i teat my no sperm count? i do not have a live sperm,how can i treat and have live sperm count

A. The treatment is done only at specialist centers, and consists first of evaluation of the reason for this condition (called azoospermia). If an anatomical malformation is found, it may be corrected, as well as medical conditions, and in some cases, direct extraction of sperms from the testes (called MESA) enables in-vitro fertilization.

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