can undergo enzymatic and nonenzymatic cleavage in vitro and in vivo .
Although the hypothesis of amyloid and Tau protein
is currently the mainstream explanation for AD onset,  it is possible that this is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the pathogenesis of AD.
While the standard hallmark of tauopathies is the appearance in brain tissue of large tangles of abnormal tau protein
, it has recently become less clear whether the tangles of tau are actually causing cognitive decline.
"levels in the medial and inferior temporal lobes were indistinguishable between" the two groups.
In 2013, Gary Small, Director of the Geriatric Psychiatry Memory and Aging Research Center at UCLA, conducted a study that became the first to identify the abnormal tau proteins
associated with CTE in five retired NFL players who were still living.
Established Alzheimer biomarkers include [beta]-amyloid and tau protein
in CSF, as well as imaging techniques that involve MRI and positron emission tomography (PET).
For example, high A-[beta]42 may be found after severe trauma, and the two disorders may manifest in repetitive injury, although tau protein
disorder is more significant (hyperphosphorylation) in the injured regions of the brain and it may progress to other regions (4).
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD brain are consist of paired helical filaments (PHFs), which are mainly composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein
(Maccioni et al.
Normally, tau protein
is involved in microtubule formation, which acts as a brain cell's transportation system for carrying nutrients in and waste out.
The Tau protein
forms chains with other Tau proteins
3) Disease-associated mutations are located in genes encoding tau protein
(MAPT), progranulin (PGRN), valosin-containing protein (VCP), charged multivesicular body protein 2b (CHMP2B), (3) and the recently described hexanucleotide repeat in the intronic region of chromosome 9, open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72).
Graves and his associates at the University of California, Santa Barbara which describes how compounds in cinnamon reduce the aggregation of tau protein
that occurs, along with amyloid-beta aggregation, in the brains of men and women with Alzheimer's disease.