McMahon, "Wnt-3a regulates somite and tailbud
formation in the mouse embryo," Genes and Development, vol.
Expression patterns up to the tailbud stage have been described for over 85% of these genes.
This myogenic factor continues to be expressed until the tailbud stage, (78-80) and activates downstream transcription factor genes including Meox (formerly called Mox) and Otp specifically in muscle cells.
Fgf8/17/18 expressed in A9.30 induces the expression of Gli and Pax2/5/8-A, and represses Otx and En in neighboring cells at the tailbud stage (Fig.
For example, confocal microscopy provided a detailed cellular description of the middle tailbud embryos of Ciona intestinalis.
Following gastrulation, the notochord plate invaginates about the axial midline to make a cylindrical rod during tailbud formation, and then the notochord cells are moved toward the midline to form a single row by an event known as convergent extension (Fig.
Three-dimensional anatomy of the Ciona intestinalis tailbud embryo at single-cell resolution.
We exposed Xenopus laevis embryos at early gastrula to the commonly encountered environmental estrogens nonylphenol, octylphenol, and methoxychlor, the antiandrogen, p,p'-DDE, or the synthetic androgen, 17[alpha]-methyltestosterone at concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 10 [micro]M and examined them at tailbud stages (~48 hr of treatment).
For in situ hybridization analysis of Xslug mRNA expression, we treated embryos beginning at stage 10.5 and examined them at neural plate stages (stages 15-18, ~17-20 hr) or tailbud stage (stages 24-26, 26-29 hr).
Because Xslug mRNA expression subsides to minimal levels by stage 37, we examined embryos at neural plate stages (stages 15-18) or tailbud stage (-stage 24).
During somitogenesis they appear as a series of pulses of elevated calcium levels centered on the tailbud region.
A plot of pixel values through time, for an area dorsal to the tailbud, shows calcium levels oscillating with a mean period of 315 s over many hours (Fig.