One of the ways captorhinids could do this was by having breakable tail vertebrae
," Aaron LeBlanc, a PhD student at the University of Toronto and lead author of the new study, (https://www.
Closer comparison of the shin bone, upper jawbone, teeth, and partial tail vertebrae
suggest to the authors that it may warrant a new species name, Torvosaurus gurneyi.
We used measurements to the base of the tail in BF estimation (Farley and Robbins, 1994), while those to the tip of the last tail vertebrae
were used for BM estimation.
The tail had a heavy club at the end made from plates fused to the last few tail vertebrae
AIt sounds drastic but in a similar case I ended up amputating one tail vertebrae
and surrounding scar tissue, finding healthy skin further up to stitch together to allow the tip to heal.
They dug into the hillside and uncovered a few tail vertebrae
and fragments of a tail spike of a stegosaur.
However, a few participants roaming the hills about 150 m away have found some fragments of bone, tracked them back to their hillside source, and dug out what appear to be a few tail vertebrae
and fragments of a spike from a stegosaur.
Tail breaks occur at fracture planes in the tail vertebrae
, and are due to muscle contractions and the grabbing force of the predator.
Standard measurements of the female include: total length, 235 mm; length of tail vertebrae
, 103 mm; length of hind foot, 26 mm; length of ear, 18 mm; and mass, 52.
It is not possible to test these mechanisms directly in Batrachoseps by examining the total number of vertebrae because Batrachoseps adds tail vertebrae
throughout life (Noble 1931).
Many of the tail vertebrae
are shaped like those of beavers and otters, which use their tails to move through water.
272) described the 20 tail vertebrae
of the London specimen as, "resembling in structure and proportions those of a squirrel.