Causes of respiratory distress in neonates presented on CXR (1,3,4,6,7) Term neonate Premature neonate CXR findings Meconium aspiration Aspiration Infection Infection Increased lung density Transient tachypnoea
of Symmetrical or of the newborn (TTN)/ the newborn (TTN)/ asymmetrical Wet lung Wet lung Respiratory distress Focal or syndrome (RDS) diffuse / hyaline membrane disease (HMD) Pulmonary haemorrhage Spontaneous pneumothorax Spontaneous Crescentic pneumothorax lucency Patent ductus / Linear markings persistent foetal Increased circulation vascularity Table III.
, haemodynamic instability and arrhythmia).
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was diagnosed predominantly on clinical-presentation of progressive dyspnoea, tachypnoea
disproportionate to chest skiagram findings, low oxygen saturation (<60%) in pulse oxymetry and/or chest radiological features ranging from normal to ground glass opacity and diffuse nodular appearance.
She was afebrile, and had a tachypnoea
of 28 breaths per minute, with 92% oxygen saturation on room air.
Shocked patients may present with tachypnoea
and are sometimes erroneously labelled as having respiratory distress.
Of the remainder, 8% ranked 3 with a 'somewhat less than likely' likelihood of a reaction and this was usually on the basis of increased temperature, particularly in children, and tachycardia or tachypnoea
, again likely related to anxiety.
He was afebrile but had tachycardia and tachypnoea
For the purposes of the study the following criteria were used for the definition of CAP, as described previously:  two or more of the following: altered breath sounds and/or signs of lung consolidation, fever, rigors, sweats and cough, with or without sputum production, pleuritic chest pain, cyanosis, shortness of breath and tachypnoea
, together with radiological confirmation of the diagnosis of pneumonia.
She had sinus tachycardia, was hypotensive (77/35 mmHg), had severe tachypnoea
and was unable to communicate adequately due to significant shortness of breath and confusion.
Fever, cough and tachypnoea
constituted the main criteria of LRTIs.
Initial impressions when looking at the child with fever (Evidence A) Potentially life-threatening features * Compromised * airway * breathing * circulation * Decreased level of consciousness Features characterising a toxic (ill-looking) child  * pallor or cyanosis * lethargy * inconsolably irritable * tachycardia (increased heart rate) * tachypnoea
(increased respiratory rate) Symptoms of dehydration * abnormal skin turgor * abnormal respiratory pattern * weak pulse * cool extremities * poor capillary refill (>3 s) Table 2.
Symptoms, signs and ECG findings in pulmonary arterial hypertension Symptoms Signs ECG findings Dyspnoea on Tachypnoea
Right atrial hypertrophy exertion Fatigue Tachycardia Right ventricular hypertrophy Chest pain Distended neck veins R/S ratio >1 in V1 Syncope Left parasternal Deep S waves in precordial lift leads Palpitations Audible tricuspid Right atrial enlargement regurgitation murmur shows peaked P waves in inferior leads Lower Ascites Extremity Lower extremity Swelling oedema