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systemic/sys·tem·ic/ (sis-tem´ik) pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole.
systemicdistributed throughout the whole of an organism.
systemic(1) relating to a system as a whole, e.g. with reference to pathological conditions, affecting the whole body, as opposed to being localized; (2) with reference to the circulation of the blood, the route from the left side of the heart through the vessels supplying the whole body except the lungs, and returning to the right side of the heart.
systemicbody-wide effects of a specific disease, or a drug (Table 1)
|Systemic drug||Effects of sudden withdrawal of long-term medication|
|Corticosteroid||Long-term corticosteroid therapy (including high-dose inhaled corticosteroid) leads to adrenal atrophy|
Patients will show a precipitous fall in blood pressure if systemic corticosteroids are suddenly withdrawn
Patients may require an increased dose of systemic steroid during the perioperative period
|The sudden withdrawal of these drugs will lead to breakthrough of the underlying disease state.|
Thus their use should be continued during the perioperative period
|Anticoagulants (aspirin, warfarin)||Anticoagulant therapy is usually maintained during the perioperative period, using low-molecular-weight heparin, e.g. Fragmin). Surgery is preceded by 4 days without warfarin, with 48 hours of subcuticular heparin immediately before surgery. The warfarin regimen is usually restarted on the day of, or the day after, surgery, whilst continuing to use heparin. Heparin therapy is usually discontinued 4-7 days after surgery and the patient maintained on warfarin therapy with early post-operative INR monitoring|
|Combined oral contraceptives|
Hormone replacement therapy
|As these drugs predispose to venous thrombosis, they are usually stopped for the perioperative period|
|Antidepressants||These drugs are gradually withdrawn in the presurgery period (to avoid withdrawal symptoms) and resumed postsurgically, as necessary|
|Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)||In order to avoid potential drug interactions with medications that may be used in the perioperative period, MAOIs should be withdrawn 2 weeks before surgery|
|Tricyclic antidepressants||These are usually maintained during the perioperative period, but patients may show arrhythmias or hypotension|
|Lithium carbonate||This should be stopped 24 hours before major surgery|
It may be continued throughout minor surgery, but fluids and electrolytes should be monitored
|Potassium-sparing diuretics||Withheld on the day of surgery (patients may develop hyperkalaemia if renal perfusion becomes impaired or tissue is damaged during surgery)|
Patient discussion about systemic
Q. Is fibromyalgia related to Central Nervous System? Is fibromyalgia related to Central Nervous System? Among men and women who is more prone to the symptoms of fibromyalgia?
"Little research has been conducted that measures the prevalence of fibromyalgia, and estimates vary widely as to the proportion of male versus female patients. A 1999 epidemiology study conducted in London found a female to male ratio of roughly three to one. However, a 2001 review of the research literature in Current Rheumatology Reports stated the ratio was nine to one."
Q. on what systems does ADHD effects?
Q. on what system in the body does a Fibromyalgia effects?