Alternatively, pesticides may first enter the body via the digestive tract and initiate synucleinopathy
in the gut, which may later spread to the brain as posited by the Braak hypothesis for PD (Braak et al.
"For the first time, we have been able to systematically show that patients whose blood pressure drops after standing up without an accompanying increase in their heart rate may have a synucleinopathy
," says lead study author of the study Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann.
Sometimes Parkinson's disease is also called as a synucleinopathy
due to accumulation of abnormal alphasynuclein protein in the brain to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative diseases, e.g.
Furthermore, increasing evidence supports that [alpha]-syn aggregates may be the real culprit, causing deficits in neurotransmission and neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which is considered to be involved in mechanisms for the hippocampal dysfunctions and associated neuropsychiatric manifestations in synucleinopathy
The presence of exogenous pathogens in the GI tract may lead to the activation of macrophages, which consequently secrete inflammatory mediators inducing oxidative stress and affecting the surrounding tissues and consequently initiating the synucleinopathy
in the ENS.
Furthermore, the accumulation of phosphorylated a-synuclein was observed in neuronal cell bodies in an AP-2 (a clathrin adaptor protein) subunit knockdown, mimicking synucleinopathy
([alpha]-synuclein-mediated neurodegenerative disorder).
Giasson, "Oxidative damage linked to neurodegeneration by selective [alpha]-synuclein nitration in synucleinopathy
lesions," Science, vol.
Also, considering this diagnosis would aid in diagnosing a synucleinopathy
disorder because a higher incidence of RBD was noted in patients who developed synucleinopathy
disorders (eg, Parkinson's disease [PD] and dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB]) compared with patients who developed nonsynucleinopathies (eg, frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, mild cognitive impairment, primary progressive aphasia, and posterior cortical atrophy) or tauopathies (eg, Alzheimer's disease).
SAN DIEGO--REM sleep behavior disorder is the earliest indication that patients are destined to develop Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, or another synucleinopathy
; it precedes the onset of motor and cognitive problems by years, according to a growing body of research.
Boeve BF, Silber MH, Ferman TJ, Lucas JA, Parisi JE (2001) Association of REM sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative disease may reflect an underlying synucleinopathy
. Movement Disorder 16: 622-630.
Liebau, "The potential of iPS cells in synucleinopathy
research," Stem Cells International, vol.
The fact that RBD is a synucleinopathy
was evidenced by the presence of prodromal neurodegenerative abnormalities including hyposmia, constipation, and orthostatic hypotension. Braak hypothesis of Lewy pathology progression proposed that a systematic spread of a-synuclein initiated from the olfactory system and brain stem. Meanwhile, RBD can also occur in the context of OSA and narcolepsy.