Cells called fibroblast-like synoviocytes
(FLS) play a major role in the disease.
Synovium is essential to joint homeostasis, since its vascular network is responsible for cartilage nutrition and because of the synoviocytes
that produce synovial fluid (54).
It is synthesized by synoviocytes
, fibroblasts and chondrocytes present in the connective tissue of all mammals (Brandt et al.
More recently, the transient receptor potential canonical 5 (TRPC5) expressed on fibroblast like synoviocytes
cells within the joint has been shown to protect against pain and inflammation in arthritic mice (54).
sup],,,, Among these diseases, IL-21R can not only be expressed by a variety of lymphocytes but also by disease target cells such as fibroblast-like synoviocytes
in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, neurons in patients with multiple sclerosis, and keratinocytes in patients with systemic sclerosis.
The effects of these inflammatory mediators in articular cartilage, chondrocytes and synoviocytes
have been reported.
1] IL-17A binds to its receptors -IL-17 receptor A/IL-17 receptor C- on synoviocytes
, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and osteoblasts and stimulates production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators, and also, interacts synergistically with other proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha.
Homocysteine enhances cytokine production in cultured synoviocytes
from rheumatoid arthritis patients.
15) Fibroblast-like synoviocytes
can circumvent healthy cell turnover and instead release inflammatory molecules via a protein complex called NF-kappaB.
AS is a water-soluble hemisuccinate derivative of dihydroartemisinin, and also possesses anti-cancer, anti-angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities in human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes
(Lai HC, et al, 2014; Wang Z, et al, 2012; Wang HY, et al, 2014.
Effects of capsaicin on the metabolism of rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in synovium and on fibroblast-like synoviocytes
," The Journal of Immunology, vol.