synergy patterns

synergy patterns

Primitive movements that dominate reflex and voluntary effort when spasticity is present following a cerebrovascular accident. They interfere with coordinated voluntary movements such as eating, dressing, and walking. Flexion synergy patterns include scapular retraction, shoulder abduction and external rotation, elbow flexion, forearm supination, and wrist and finger flexion in the upper extremity; and hip flexion, abduction and external rotation, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion in the lower extremity. Extension synergy patterns include scapular protraction, shoulder adduction and internal rotation, elbow extension, forearm pronation, and wrist and finger flexion in the upper extremity; and hip extension, adduction and internal rotation, knee extension, ankle plantar flexion and inversion, and toe flexion in the lower extremity.
References in periodicals archive ?
These synergy patterns have been well quantified [3-4] and appear to be expressed in proportion to effort [5-6].
The maximum net force is partially limited by antagonist muscle cocontraction in the synergy patterns and participants potentially being unable to generate maximal contractions poststroke.
Limiting effort to limit the expression of synergy patterns will allow FES to have a greater effect.
Synergy patterns scale somewhat proportionally to effort, increasing the forces in multiple muscles [5].
Similarly, participating in these therapies may increase volitional movement and disconnect synergy patterns [20], thereby allowing more assistance from volitional effort, providing a more robust command signal, allowing for finer movements in response to stimulation, and progressively decreasing reliance on the stimulation.