In their respective masterpieces, Walden (1854) and Man and Nature (1864), the idea of synecology
had been sensed, if not yet named, and both writers, the one in Massachusetts, the other from Vermont, had been influenced by German philosophy through East Coast Transcendentalism.
Synecology. This heliophilous grassland develops on edges of coastal rocky cliffs highly exposed to salt spray, at an altitude ranging between 10 and 30 m, on crystalline substrates (Fango valley) or on schist substrates (Cap Corse).
Synecology. This shrubland occupies the upper part of the coastal cliffs, in semi-sheltered conditions, between 15 and 70 m in the Cap Corse and at much lower altitudes in the Fango region.
Synecology. This group colonizes cracks of rocks or the lower parts of the cliffs, close to the sea, exposed to frequent alt spray and sea water projections and where rain water can accumulate.
Selected life history and synecology
characteristics of Ashe juniper on the Edwards Plateau of Texas.
Chapter titles are: "Rangeland Conservation," "Defoliation," "Physiological Effects of Defoliation," "Palatability, Preference, and Selective Defoliation," "Physical Effects of Grazing Animals," "Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling," "Redistribution of Minerals by Plants and Animals," "Distribution of Plants by Animals," "Fire as an Environmental Factor," and "Rangeland Synecology." Part Two is subtitled "Grazing Management" and consists of eight chapters focusing on the art and science of managing both domestic (i.e., livestock) and wild herbivores in a mix of rangeland environments.
Chapter 10 ("Rangeland Synecology") is a particularly refreshing treatment of such fundamental ecological concepts as succession, climax vegetation, range condition, and trend.
Plant communities: a textbook of plant synecology
. Harper & Row, New York, New York, USA.
Synecology. From the ecological point of view, great similarity has been found with Medicagini rigidulaeAegilopetum geniculatae Riv.-Mart.
Synecology. The association shows a silicicolous oligotrophic sub-nitrophilous ecological preference.
Hereafter, they are described according to their synecology, structure, syndynamic and synchorology.
Synecology and structure: woodland with evergreen sclerophylous species dominated by Quercus ilex, with a good covering of Erica arborea.