However, in contrast to ankylosing spondylitis, there is relative sparing of the sacroiliac joints and the absence of bamboo spine, annular ossification, syndesmophyte
, or erosion in ochronotic spine disease.
While relationship between ASDAS and syndesmophyte
formation is proven, the association with BASDAI is weaker.
Poddubnyy et al., "High level of functional dickkopf-1 predicts protection from syndesmophyte
formation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis," Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol.
AS patients with no syndesmophyte
formation show significantly higher functional DKK-1 levels, suggesting that blunted Wnt signaling suppresses new bone formation and consequently syndesmophyte
growth and spinal ankylosis.
However, paradoxically, in PsA, patients may also display periarticular periostitis, and in AS and to a lesser extent PsA, prominent syndesmophyte
formation in the spine, leading to bridging ankylosis in its most severe form.
Imaging modalities other than radiographs and MRI should also be evaluated in the future, such as low-dose CT that shows promise for studies of syndesmophyte
development and growth (95).
Paravertebral ossifications in SAPHO may simulate syndesmophyte
Regular use of NSAIDs has been shown to prevent syndesmophyte
These were identified as male sex, age, low body mass index (BMI), osteoporosis, disease duration, degree of syndesmophyte
formation, peripheral joint involvement, increased spinal motion restriction, and increased occiput-to-wall distance.
Among them, CRP is the most important because CRP levels in serum can predict persistent inflammation, subsequent syndesmophyte
formation, and treatment response to anti-TNF[alpha] drugs in AS patients [18,57-59].
Anteroposterior pelvis radiographs showed grade III bilateral sacroiliitis, and lateral lumbar radiographs revealed a decrease in lordosis, squaring of the vertebral bodies, and syndesmophyte
Anterior and posterior syndesmophyte
bridging with calcification of the spinal ligaments was observed on his thoracic spine radiographs.