tumour necrosis factor-a characterizes failing first trimester pregnancies in a subgroup of recurrent miscarriage patients.
(72) Zika virus has also been shown to infect primary human Hofbauer cells (placental macrophages) and cytotrophoblasts, whereas syncytiotrophoblasts
appear to be resistant to infection.
Moreover, when we performed RNA FISH, the GAS5 transcript was localized almost exclusively in the syncytiotrophoblast
layer of the human placenta and colocalizes GRa.
Our capacity to pharmacologically induce PPAR-[gamma] activity poses a potential avenue for improving placental trophoblast physiology via upregulation of GCM-1 expression in residual trophoblast progenitors, thereby restoring the process of syncytiotrophoblast
formation, and thus normal placental function, in pregnancies characterized by abnormal placental development.
that is the main trophoblast to come into contact with the maternal immune system lacks classic class I and II HLA antigens.
Human placentation is closely related to the presence of EG-VEGF secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast
layer with the highest expression detected between the 8th and 10th week of gestation in the normal placenta .
Villous immaturity, edema, hypervascularity, stromal fibrosis and calcification, focal syncytiotrophoblast
necrosis, and mild lymphocytic deciduitis may also be present (Figure 6, A through C).
They are syncytiotrophoblast
, cytotrophoblast and intermediate trophoblasts.
erodes the endometrium and creates the start of an exchange surface between the embryo and the mother.
Timedependent effect of oral morphine consumption on the development of cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast
cells of the placental layers during the three different periods of pregnancy in Wistar rats.
In pregnancy PAI-1 is also secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast
, where its increased mRNA levels have been histologically determined in preeclamptic placentas with IUGR .
In the human placenta B7-H1 proteins are expressed selectively on trophoblast cells including villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells and syncytiotrophoblast
cells.3 Blockage of maternally-derived B7-H1 has been found to result in rejection of allogeneic fetuses in mice.34 It has also been shown that persistent expression of PD-1 on T cells contributes to chronic viral infections due to its inhibition of immune response.5 In summary these studies have offered strong evidence that this pathway plays a role in tolerance to both self and foreign antigens.