Neurone-specific enolase, chromogranin, CD56, immunoperoxidase, synaptophysin
, epithelial membrane antigen, calcitonin, and bombesin stains may be useful to establish the diagnosis.
D, The tumor cells show strong expression of synaptophysin
(hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification X200 [A and C]; original magnification X200 [B and D]).
The sections were stained for the following markers: Pancytokeratin (Leica Bond AE1/AE3), NSE (Leica Bond 22C9), CD56 (Leica Bond CD564), Vimentin (Leica Bond V9), CD10 (Leica Bond 56C6), progesterone receptor (Leica Bond 16), [beta] catenin (Leica Bond 17C2), chromogranin (VENTANA), synaptophysin
(Leica) and CD99 (VENTANA O13).
C) Negative immunohistochemical staining for synaptophysin
Immunoreactivity for synaptophysin
and neurofilament proteins in various studies have ranged from 38% to 100% and from 8% to 71%, respectively.
In the WHO classification, neuroendocrine tumors have been defined as those in which one or more neuroendocrine markers, such as neuro specific enolase, chromogranin A, and/or synaptophysin
, are expressed in at least 50% of cancer cells.
Immunohistochemistry showed tumor positivity for vimentin, smooth-muscle actin and synaptophysin
and negativity for the keratin 7, keratin AE1/AE3, keratin 20, keratin 5/6, chromogranin, KIT (CD117), CD34, CDX2, CD56, protein-S100, p63 and desmin antigens (Figures 5 and 6).
Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on the cell block and core biopsy sections using antibodies TTF-1 (1:200; Leica), thyroglobulin (1:1000; Dako), ER (1:50; Dako), PR (premade; Leica), GATA3 (1:200; Cell Marque), GCDFP-15 (1:500; Leica), CD56 (Premade; Leica), synaptophysin
(1:200; Dako), chromogranin (1:200; Cell Marque), pAx8 (1:100; Cell Marque), villin (1:100; Leica), CK 7 (1:400; Dako) and CK20 (1:200; Novocastra).
Immunohistochemistry shows positive staining for the synaptophysin
, chromogranin A, and CD56 neuroendocrine markers.
Synapses are believed to be the basis of AD pathology and synaptophysin
(SYP) is one of the best targets that is often measured to quantify synapses function.
The immunohistochemical stains performed were Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE) (Dako,1:400), Chromogranin A (Dako, 1:5000), CD56 (NovoCas- tra,1:50), Neurofilament (Dako,1:400), S-100 (Dako, 1:1000), Synaptophysin
(Biogenex, 1:400), Vimentin (Vim 3B4 Dako, 1:100), CD 99 (mic-2 12E7 Dako, Pre-diluted), Cytokeratin (clone AE1/AE3 Dako 1:50), Epithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA) (E29, Dako, 1:50), Cytokeratin 7 (OV-TL 12/30, Dako, 1:100), CD117 (c-kit - Dako, 1:100), Desmin (D33, Dako, 1:150), Cytokeratin CAM 5.
On immunohistochemistry, Ki67 was positive in tumor cells (70-80%), synaptophysin
was positive in tumor cells, CD56 was positive in tumor cells and chromogranin was weak focal positive.