Alph[alpha]-synuclein was first identified in the synaptic vesicles
and nuclei of the electric organ of Torpedo Californica .
Each synapse consists of a patch of "presynaptic membrane" from one neuron (typically an axon terminus) adhered to a patch of "postsynaptic membrane" from a second connecting neuron (typically a dendrite), and the space between them called the "synaptic cleft." At chemical synapses, which comprise the vast majority of synapses in the brain, action potentials (i.e., electrical activity) from the presynaptic neuron trigger the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, provoking molecular and cellular responses in the postsynaptic neuron in a process referred to as "synaptic activity." The presynaptic side of the synapse hosts the molecular machinery needed to release and recycle synaptic vesicles
containing these neurotransmitters.
Babatz et al., "A de novo 1p34.2 microdeletion identifies the synaptic vesicle
gene RIMS3 as a novel candidate for autism," Journal of Medical Genetics, vol.
Acetylcholine, ATP, and proteoglycan are common to synaptic vesicles
isolated from the electric organs of electric eel and catfish as well as from rat diaphragm.
Mueller et al., "Interactome of the amyloid precursor protein APP in brain reveals a protein network involved in synaptic vesicle
turnover and a close association with synaptotagmin-1," Journal of Proteome Research, vol.
Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding p38, a major synaptic vesicle
Synapsins are responsible for trafficking of synaptic vesicles
from presynaptic terminals, particularly related to the cytoplasmic surface (30).
Effects of diabetes on synaptopathy (A) Ultrastructural micrographs of the synaptic terminals in the cerebellar molecular layer, showing the presynaptic terminal (pink area), synaptic vesicle
cluster (purple part) and postsynaptic area (blue).
Direct observation of synaptic vesicle
dynamics using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy
It does not have a role in synaptic release of neurotransmitters but it is a structural component of the vesicle, giving indirect information about the number of synaptic vesicles
and synapses (8).
Hell, "STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle
exocytosis," Nature, vol.
Briviact is the newest antiepileptic drug (AED) in the 'racetam' class of medicines and demonstrates a high and selective affinity for synaptic vesicle
protein 2A (SV2A) in the brain, which may contribute to its anticonvulsant effects.