Publication: "Increased synapse elimination
by microglia in schizophrenia patient-derived models of synaptic pruning".
For instance, the rate of postnatal synapse elimination
, a controlled process of presynaptic withdrawal that has been well characterized at developing neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) or following nerve regeneration in adults, is readily modifiable and strongly influenced by activity [37-39].
Although synapse remodeling is described to be persistent during life, once overproduced synapses have been removed during postnatal development, synapse elimination
is downregulated and remains stable (Figure 1(b)).
was high, not only in the early phase of differentiation but also after complete maturation of neurons that had been maintained for more than 3 weeks in culture.
Siidhof, "Neuroligins/LRRTMs prevent activity- and Ca 2+/calmodulin-dependent synapse elimination
in cultured neurons," Journal of Cell Biology, vol.
The classical complement proteins C1q and C3 localize to the synapse and mediate synapse elimination
by microglia [93, 94].
Why are so many synapses lost, what determines which synapses are eliminated, what are the molecular mechanisms involved, and what are the consequences of not getting it right Recently, several studies have presented microglial phagocytosis as a mechanism for synapse elimination
. Neural activity plays a role in synaptic pruning, but the neuronal eat-me signals that mediate phagocytic recognition and engulfment of synapses remain to be identified.
Barres' group found that synapse elimination
is reactivated very early in glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease that is a major cause of blindness.
accompanies functional plasticity in hippocampal neurons.
Astrow, Ph.D., in USC's Department of Biological Sciences, for her project, "Plasticity of Neuromuscular Synaptic Connections After Injury." This proposal sought to understand the mechanisms of synapse elimination
, the process by which an initial overproduction of connections between neurons is reduced to the final adult number of neural circuits.
Synaptogenesis, synapse elimination
, and neural plasticity in human cerebral cortex.
In 1975, Brian Cragg first documented a phase of rapid increase in synapses, followed by a phase of synapse elimination
in the visual area of the cat brain.8 In the cat, some synapse formation occurs before birth, but Cragg saw that there was a period of rapid synapse formation from eight to 37 days following birth.